Advanced Project Management Project Scope Management Ghazala Amin
Scope Definition • Involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components Project Scope Management 3
Scope Definition • Uses the scope statement to form basis of project definition. • Planning outputs used by the company are utilized. • Historical information • Work breakdown structure templates • Results in; • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) WBS ensures that all work within a project is identified and defined within a common framework Project Scope Management 4
Work Break Down Structure • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)- Deliverable-oriented grouping of project components. • WBS is six level indented structure; • Total Program, Project, Task, Sub Task, Work Package and Level of Effort (LOE) • Work Package • Deliverable at the lower level of the Work Breakdown Structure WBS is initially developed in the scope definition phase of the project and should be used as a responsibility/accountabilityteam building tool . Project Scope Management 5
Work Breakdown Structure • The WBS serves as the framework on which project is built and as the “map” for project execution. • WBS focuses attention on project objectives and encourages detailed planning and documentation. • It clarifies responsibilities and identifies elements for estimating and work assignment. • WBS is used throughout the project; it needs to be revised in event of any changes or updates. • WBS is the cornerstone of quality project planning!! A project sponsor should insist on a complete and updated WBS to ensure that a project manager can answer all key questions pertaining to project activities and status. • Source/Reference: IBM Learning Centre for development of PM Curriculum Project Scope Management 6
Developing WBS • Gather all project-related materials that define solution, approach and scope. • Review WBS for similar projects • Prepare a hi-level WBS representing “WHAT” • Refine and decompose to manageable and trackable level • Involve responsible project team members in developing WBS • Include project support elements such as PMIS, quality assurance • Avoid developing details before it is needed • Review structure with responsible stakeholders; get buy-in from those responsible for deliverables • Add appropriate elements to manage risk • USE GOOD JUDGEMENT-THERE ARE NO HARD AND FAST RULES Project Scope Management 7 • Source/Reference: IBM Learning Centre for development of PM Curriculum
Scope Verification • Process of obtaining formal acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders (sponsor, client, customer, project team etc.) Project Scope Management 8
Scope Verification • WBS and the project plan is reviewed • Formal inspection by upper management is undertaken. • Formal inspection by SME (Subject Matter Expert) or the external Consultant is undertaken. • Results in; • Formal acceptance of the scope of the project. Project Scope Management 9
Scope Change Control • Concerned with • influencing the factors which create scope changes to ensure that changes are beneficial • determining that a scope change has occurred • managing the actual changes when and if they occur Project Scope Management 10
Scope Change Control • Any Change request if necessary is reviewed and documented • Formal Scope change control system is put in place and used if necessary. • Performance measurement system is identified and documented • Results in; • Scope changes • Corrective action • Lessons learned • Adjusted Baseline In making key changes to project activities, it is important to have a formal change process and a formal CCB, responsible for approving or rejecting changes. Project Scope Management 11
Change Management Document • Changes could be internal or external driven. • External changes are mostly customer driven changes. • Internal changes are initiated from within the project team or the project organization. • Some issues that cannot be resolved could become internal changes. • Change management is very important for the project and it should be monitored and enforced through change control board • Change Management Document is supported by Change Request Form(s) to formally make changes in the project. • Change Request Log should be updated whether change request is approved or rejected.
Lessons Learned • Lessons Learned is an important part of learning from good experiences during the project and also documentation of things that did not go so well and had room for improvement. • Projects should invest in well organized and well participated lessons learned meetings during the closure of projects or after phase end review. • Companies should enforce mandatory participation for these meetings. Organizations usually cannot complete the lesson learned activity because team members are quickly moved on to other projects, which leaves no time for this exercise. Project Scope Management 13
Lessons Learned Report • Reflective statements written by project managers and their team members to document important things they have learned from working on the project. • It is a best practice to document the lessons learned on periodic basis.
Project Scope Management From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia • If requirements are not completely defined and described and if there is no effective change control in a project, scope or requirement creep may ensue. • Scope creep management is important for effective project management. Projects are expected to meet strict deadlines with resource restraints, and an unvetted and unapproved change in the scope can affect the success of the project. Scope creep sometimes causes cost overrun. • Scope creep is a term which refers to the incremental expansion of the scope of a project, which may include and introduce more requirements that may not have been a part of the initial planning of the project, while nevertheless failing to adjust schedule and budget. There are two distinct ways to separate scope creep management. The first is business scope creep, and the second is called features (also technology) scope creep. The type of scope creep management is always dependent on the people who create the changes. • Business scope creep management occurs when decisions that are made with reference to a project are designed to solve or meet the requirements and needs of the business. Business scope creep changes may be a result of poor requirements definition early in development, or the failure to include the users of the project until the later stage of the systems development life cycle.