Failure to define what is part of the project, as well as what is not, may result in work being performed that was unnecessary to create the product of the project and thus lead to both schedule and budget overruns. Olde Curmudgeon, PM Network Magazine, 1994.
Benefits of Scope Control • Keep project manager in control of project • Allow project manager to control project’s schedule and budget • Allow project team to stay focused and on track
Myths of Scope Management • Myth 1: User involvement will result in an IS project grounded in the realities of business needs. • Myth 2: A scope statement will clearly define what a project will do. • Myth 3: Once the scope of the project is defined, hold firm because any deviation from the original plan is a sign that the project is out of control.
Myths of Scope Management • Myth4: A function of a scope change committee is to arbitrate user requests for additional features or functionality beyond the original project charter. • Myth5: Regular and frequent meetings with senior management will ensure they are kept up to date and will result in goodwill and support. • Myth6: You can always make up schedules and budgets later on if they slip a little bit.
Scope Change Control • Concerns • Scope grope • Scope creep • Scope leap
Suggestions for Improving User Input • Develop a good project selection process and insist that sponsors are from the user organization • Have users on the project team in important roles • Have regular meetings • Deliver something to users and sponsors on a regular basis • Co-locate users with developers
Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements • Develop and follow a requirements management process • Use techniques like prototyping, use case modeling, and JAD to get more user involvement • Put requirements in writing and keep them current • Provide adequate testing and conduct testing throughout the project life cycle • Review changes from a systems perspective • Emphasize completion dates to help focus on what’s most important • Allocate resources specifically for handling change requests/enhancements
Using Software to Assist in Project Scope Management • Word-processing software helps create several scope-related documents • Spreadsheets help to perform financial calculations, create weighted scoring models, and develop charts and graphs • Communication software like e-mail and the Web help clarify and communicate scope information • Project management software helps in creating a WBS, the basis for tasks on a Gantt chart • Specialized software is available for applying the balanced scorecard, creating mind maps, managing requirements, and so on