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Resurrection

Resurrection

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Resurrection

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  1. Resurrection The Evidence

  2. What do we know from the Bible? • Details of the death and resurrection of Jesus are described in the following Gospel passages: • Mark 15:33 to 16:8 (Verses 16:9 to 16:20 are a later forgery inserted by an unknown author long after the original book was written) • Matthew 27:52 to 28:20 • Luke 23:44 to 24:12 • John 19:29 to 20:18

  3. Some liberal theologians have concluded that the birth, childhood and resurrection stories were pieced together by the authors of the gospels out of developing legends that were circulating among various Christian groups at the time. • Conservative theologians believe in the inerrancy of the Bible and that God inspired its authors. Thus they believe that the apparently conflicting gospel stories can be harmonized into a single coherent picture.

  4. So what do we get when we combine the stories? • Simon from Cyrene was pressed into service to carry the cross from Jerusalem to Golgotha, the place of crucifixion. • There, Jesus was offered a drink of wine mixed with a bitter substance. He refused. • He was nailed to the cross through his palms and feet. • Two robbers were crucified with him; one on either side. • People passing by hurled insults.

  5. From the 6th to the 9th hour, it became dark. • Jesus cried out. • He was offered vinegar to drink. He cried out again and died. • The gospels record different final messages. • The veil in the temple was torn from top to bottom by an unknown force. • Joseph of Arimathea obtained permission to take Jesus' body to his private tomb.

  6. He wrapped the body in a clean linen cloth, placed it in the tomb and sealed the entrance. • On Sunday morning, an unknown number of women came to the tomb. The stone had been rolled away. They found that Jesus' body was missing.

  7. But not all of the gospels totally agree with this story. Disagreements abound • Who carried the cross to the place of execution? • Mark: Simon • Matthew: Simon • Luke: Simon • John: Jesus

  8. What was the sign over Jesus' head on the cross? • Mark: "THE KING OF THE JEWS" • Matthew: "THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS" • Luke: "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS" • John: "JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS" in Aramaic, Latin and Greek

  9. What did the robbers say to Jesus? • Mark: they both hurled insults • Matthew: Same as Mark • Luke: One hurled insults; the other said that Jesus' execution was unjust because he was not guilty of any crime • John: Nothing was recorded

  10. What were Jesus' last words? • Mark: Jesus "cried out", but the words (if any) were not recorded • Matthew: Same as Mark • Luke:"Father, into your hands I commit my spirit." • John: "It is finished."

  11. Who went to the tomb with spices to prepare Jesus' body? • Mark: 3 women on Sunday morning just after sunrise • Matthew: No record • Luke: 4 or more women on Sunday morning very early in the morning, presumably while dark • John: Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus on Friday before sundown

  12. Who visited the tomb on Sunday with Mary Magdalene? • Mark: Two women: Salome and Mary the mother of James • Matthew: One woman: "the other Mary" • Luke: Three or more women: Mary the mother of James, Joanna and at least one other woman • John: None; she went alone

  13. When did she/they visit the tomb on Sunday? • Mark: just after sunrise • Matthew: at dawn • Luke: very early in the morning, presumably while it was still dark • John: while it was still dark

  14. What happened to the rock that sealed the tomb? • Mark: The stone had already been rolled back before they arrived • Matthew: An earthquake happened; an angel appeared and rolled it away as the women approached the tomb. • Luke: Same as Mark • John: Same as Mark

  15. Who did she/they find at the tomb? • Mark: A young man dressed in a white robe was inside the tomb • Matthew: An angel sitting on the rock outside the tomb • Luke: Two men were inside the tomb, dressed in clothes that looked like lightning • John: Nobody

  16. Where was Jesus at the time? • Mark: not at the tomb; he was on his way to Galilee • Matthew: same as Mark • Luke: unknown • John: unknown

  17. Did she/they enter the tomb? • Mark: Yes • Matthew: Yes. They were invited by the angel to "come see the place where he lay" • Luke: Yes • John: No

  18. How did she/they react to the news?: • Mark: They fled, trembling and bewildered • Matthew: They fled, fearful and joyous • Luke: They left • John: She ran to Simon Peter and the disciple that Jesus loved

  19. Who did she/they see on the way to the disciples? • Mark: Nobody • Matthew: They met Jesus, who they immediately recognized • Luke: Nobody • John: Nobody

  20. How did the disciples react to the news? • Mark: They didn't; the woman told nobody of the news because they were afraid. • Matthew: They believed the women. • Luke: The disciples, and "all the others" didn't believe the women. Peter ran to the tomb anyway. • John: They believed Mary.

  21. Did the women/woman return to the tomb? • Mark: No record • Matthew: No record • Luke: No record • John: Yes. Mary saw two angels and Jesus there; but she thought that Jesus was the gardener

  22. To whom did Jesus first appear? • Mark: to all the disciples somewhere in Galilee • Matthew: to Mary Magdalene and the other Mary as they left the tomb to tell the brethren • Luke: to Cleopas and an unidentified person on a road between Jerusalem and Emmaus • John: to all the disciples in a house in Jerusalem • Paul: to Peter (I Corinthians 15:5)

  23. Who observed Jesus' resurrection, according to the Bible? • Actually, nobody actually viewed the resurrection process as it happened. The Gospels report that Jesus' body was missing from the cave where he was buried. • A missing body would have been consistent with the corpse being stolen, or with Jesus not having died on the cross but having recovered in the tomb. But the Bible talks about Jesus' resurrection, and records that witnesses either learned that Jesus had risen, or observed Jesus alive after his resurrection.

  24. The woman/women who visited the tomb on Sunday morning: • Mark 16: A man told three women: Mary Magdalene, Salome and Mary the mother of James that Jesus had risen. • Matthew 28: An angel told two women: Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary," that Jesus had risen. Later, they met Jesus near the tomb. • Luke 24: Four or more women: Mary the mother of James, Joanna and at least one other women went to the tomb and found it empty. Two men told them that Jesus had risen. • John 20: Mary Magdalene, alone went to the tomb and was told by two angels that Jesus had risen. Later, she met Jesus, originally mistaking him for the gardener.

  25. Luke 24:13-24 • Jesus appeared to two of Jesus' followers on the road to Emmaus.

  26. Luke 24:36-43: • Eleven apostles and the two from the road to Emmaus saw Jesus in Jerusalem. It was reported that Jesus had previously appeared to Peter, presumably alone.

  27. John 20:19: • Jesus appeared to 10 of the apostles -- all except Thomas -- in Jerusalem.

  28. John 20:26: • Jesus appeared to all of the apostles, in Jerusalem. (See also Mark 16:14).

  29. John 21: • Jesus appeared at the Sea of Galilee while the disciples were fishing.

  30. 1 Corinthians 15:6: • First to Peter, then to the twelve apostles, more than 500 followers, James and then to all of the apostles. The location(s) are not mentioned. Finally, Jesus' voice was heard by Paul on the road to Damascus.

  31. Mark 16:19: • The disciples watched while Jesus rose into the sky at Mount Olive.

  32. Acts 9:3: • The disembodied voice of Jesus appeared to Paul. See also 1 Corinthians 15:8.

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