Diversity Project By: Narges, Jorden and Chantal
Bryophytes Anatomy Rhizoids are short and thin filaments. They absorb nutrients and water from the surrounding plants. Rhizoids, are not technically roots, but they act as a root system for plants. Simple leaf is a leaf which is not divided into parts. Sporangium reproduces through a structure called a sporangia. It is a round, hard case that holds thousands of spores. Sporangium and seta play an important role in transfer of materials.
Bryophytes life cycle Alternation of generation occurs in mosses like all the other plants. Alternation of generation means that a multi-cellular haploid phase (gametophyte) alternates with a multi-cellular diploid phase (sporophyte). Diploid means that there are two sets of chromosomes in the cell and haploid means that there is one set. Gametophytes are either male or female. The male gametophytes produce sperm and the female produces egg.
Bryophtes physiology Brophyta (mosses), Hepatophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerophyta (hornworts) are the three main classes within the Bryophytes. Bryophytes are non-vascular plants that are small and grow closer to one another. They have the ability to grow on leaves, trunks of other trees, soil, and even on rocks. They have the ability to flourish in the moist and damp areas of the forests. This helps them to absorb water and help the other plants and trees to grow in dry season. Bryophytes are capable of absorbing anything that are around them which helps the environmental engineers to study the pollutants present in the particular area. Bryophytes also help with mineral recycling.
The life cycle A mature moss gametophyte produces reproductive structures at the tip of the plant. For some moss species the male and female reproductive structures are on the same plant, while for others they are on separate plants. Through mitosis, the female gametophyte produces haploid female gametes, or eggs and the male gametophyte produces haploid male gametes, or sperm. When it rains, sperm are released and splashed onto the female gametophyte. One sperm swims down the neck to fertilize the egg. This union produces a diploid zygote, the first cell of the Sporophyte phase. The zygote divides and grows into an embryo. The embryo grows and develops into a Sporopyte. The Sporophyte remains attached to the gametophyte and is dependent on it for nutrients and water. The mature Sporophyte consists of a sporangium (capsule) and stalk. Inside the sporangium, the diploid cells undergo meiosis, producing thousands of haploid spores. When conditions are right, the spore divides through mitosis to produce a long, multi-branched, photosynthetic strand called the protonema. Over time, the protonema develops buds, the buds develop into a leafy gametophyte, and the moss life cycle continues.
Obtaining food Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. 6 CO2+ 6 H2O+light energy → C6H12O6+ 6 O2 Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen Photosynthesis is the same in all the plants. During photosynthesis, sunlight energy is stored in carbohydrate for later use. Most of the carbohydrates stay in the plant but some of it goes else where, perhaps into the stem, or maybe in a underground storage area, like potato plants.
Respiration Cellular respiration is a process where the plants take in glucose (sugar) and carbon dioxide and they produce molecules of water, oxygen and ATP. There are three stages in cellular respiration Glycolosis which occurs in the cytoplasm. It produces two molecules of pyruvate acid, two NADH and two ATPs. Krebs cycle which happens in the matrix of mitochondria. And it produces: two ATPs, six NADH, two FADH2,and four co2. Electron transport chain happens in the inner membrane of mitochondria(cristae) uses NADH and FADH2. it produces 32 ATPs. Prokaryotic produces 38 ATPs, and eukaryotic produces 36 ATPS. Our plants excrete oxygen during this process.
Circulation (Vascular plants) Water and dissolved minerals enter a plant's roots from the soil by means of diffusion and osmosis. These substances then travel upward in the plant in xylem vessels. The transpiration theory ascribes this ascending flow to a pull from above, caused by transpiration, the evaporation of water from leaves. The long water column stays intact due to the strong cohesion between water molecules. Carbohydrates, produced in leaves by photosynthesis, travel downward in plants in specialized tissue, phloem. This involves active transport of sugars into phloem cells and water pressure to force substances from cell to cell.
Locomotion Most people believe that since plants simply transform light into chemical energy, they only need to be in one place with a maximum surface area to capture sunlight. Actually, some plants have a creative ways of moving their leaves in response to a wide variety of stimuli, such as touch and light. The movement of the leaf can be either very fast or very slow. Motor cells located in the region, called the pulvinus control the movement of the plant. These kind of cells either shrink or swell because of the inward flow or outward flow of water.
Gymnosperms (naked seed)Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo)Cycadophyta (Cycad)Gnetophyta (Conifers)
Cycadophyta (Cycad) The basic anatomy of a cycad consists of a trunk, which may be underground or aboveground depending on the species; roots; leaves; and one or more cones, if the plant is mature and in season.
Gymnosperms physiology Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo): played a crucial role in Chinese herbal medicine for many centuries. It cures Alzheimer's disease, increase circulation, tastes like almonds and smells like rancid butter. is a highly adaptable plant that can grow in almost any temperate or Mediterranean climate. It is also resistant to pollution and pests.
Gymnosperms physiology Cycadophyta (Cycad): Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants with a crown of large compound leaves and a stout trunk. They are a minor component of the flora in tropical and subtropical regions. Some cycads grow in moist areas and in dense forests, while others are found in exposed places and in semi desert regions.
Gymnosperms physiology Gnetophyta (Conifers): A tree that is a gymnosperm, usually evergreen, with cones and needle-shaped or scale-like leaves.Trees called softwoods are coniferous. They include pine, spruces, firs, and cedars. Wood hardness varies among the conifer species, and some are actually harder than some hardwoods.
Life cycle Gymnosperms Life cycle takes about two years to complete. The photosynthetic part of the life cycle is the sporophyte. In the pine, the cones are the specialized reproductive elements where process of division takes place. The male cones produce the Pollen grains, and contain the male gametophyte. When pollen is released, the wind carries it to the female cones. The cones will be close, until the following year.
Ptreidophytes Psilophyta (Whisk fern)Sphenophyta (Horsetails)Lycophyta (club mosses)
Pteridophytes Root Anatomy
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