87 Chapter 3Managing The Incident: Incident Command System Textbook Page
Objectives • List The Categories Of Players And Participants At A Hazardous Materials Incident. • Identify The Key Organizational Elements Of The Incident Command System. • Describe The Concept Of Unified Command, And Its Application And Use At A Hazardous Materials Incident. • Identify The Key Elements Of The Incident Command System Necessary To Coordinate Response Activities At A Hazardous Materials Incident.
Objectives • Identify The Duties And Responsibilities Of The Following Hazmat Group Functions Within The Incident Command System: [NFPA 472 - 18.104.22.168] • Backup • Decontamination • Entry • Hazmat Group Management • Hazmat Group Safety • Information/Research • Reconnaissance • Resources
Introduction • Direct, Effective Command And Control Operations Are Essential At Every Type Of Incident. • This Chapter Will Review The Fundamental Concepts Of Incident Management And Its Application At A Hazmat Incident. • Primary Topics Will Include: • The Various Players Who Characteristically Appear At A Hazmat Incident • The Elements Of The Incident Command System (ICS) • The Functions And Responsibilities Of The Hazmat Group • “Street Smart” Tips
Managing The Incident: The Players • A Hazmat Incident Often Attracts An Interesting Collection Of Participants. • The Key To Success Is To Have A Coordinated Incident Command Structure Where All Of The Players Integrate Their Resources To Make The Problem Go Away In A Safe And Effective Manner.
Managing The Incident: The Players • The Basic ICS Organization That Must Be Created To Bridge These Potential Gaps And Problems Includes The Following: • The Incident Commander (Command Or IC) • Unified Commanders (UC) • ICS General Staff • ICS Command Staff
ThePlayers • Fire/Rescue/EMS Companies • Police Officers And Law Enforcement Personnel • Emergency Response Team (ERT) • Hazardous Materials Response Teams (HMRT). • Special Operations Teams • Communications Personnel • Responsible Party • Facility Managers • Support Personnel
The Players • Technical Information Specialist • Environmental Clean-up Contractors • Government Officials • News Media • Investigators • Victims • Spectators • The Bad Guy • The Hazardous Material
92 Managing The Incident: ICS • The OSHA 1910.120(q) Is A Requirement That Both Public Safety And Industrial Emergency Response Organizations Use “Nationally Recognized Incident Command System For Emergencies Involving Hazardous Materials.” • Experience Has Shown That The Normal, Day-to-day Business Organization Is Not Well-suited To Meeting The Broad Demands Created By “Working” Hazmat Incidents.
Managing The Incident: ICS • National Incident Management System (NIMS) Is A “Baseline” Incident Management Organization That Is Utilized By Federal, State, And Local Governments, As Well As Many Private Sector Organizations Throughout North America. • The Incident Command System Is An Organized System Of Roles, Responsibilities, And Procedures For The Command And Control Of Emergency Operations.
Incident Management Vs. Crisis Management • Crisis Management Is An Integral Element Of Most Corporate And Industrial Organizations. • There Is A Direct Relationship Between Incident Management And Crisis Management • An Incident Can Be Defined As An Occurrence Or Event, Either Natural Or Man-made, Which Requires Action By Emergency Response Personnel To Prevent Or Minimize Loss Of Life Or Damage To Property And/Or Natural Resources. • A Crisis Is An Unplanned Event That Can Exceed The Level Of Available Resources, And Has The Potential To Significantly Impact An Organization’s Operability, Credibility And Reputation, Or Pose A Significant Environmental, Economic, Or Legal Liability.
ICS Lessons Learned • A Variety Of Different “Players” Will Respond To A “Working” Hazmat Incident. • What Occurs During The Planning And Preparedness Phase Will Establish The Framework For How The Emergency Response Effort Will Operate. • There Is No Single Agency That Can Effectively Manage A Major Emergency Alone. • Many Special Operations Teams, Including HMRT, Tend To Be “People-dependent” Programs.
ICS Lessons Learned • In Those Cases Where ICS Has Not Resulted In The Operational Improvements Expected, The Problems Are Typically Associated With Planning, Training, And The Organization “Buying Into” The ICS Program, As Compared To The ICS System Itself. • The Management And Control Of Routine, Day-to-day Incidents Establishes The Framework For How The Larger, More Significant Events Will Be Managed.
ICS Elements • Division Of Labor • Lines Of Authority Are Clearly Defined • Unity Of Command • Optimum Span Of Control • Establishment Of Both Line And Staff Functions
Common Terminology of ICS • Incident Commander (IC) • Sections • Operations Section • Planning Section • Logistics Section • Administration / Finance Section • Branch • Division/Group/Sectors • Command Staff Officers • Safety Officer / Liaison Officer / Information Officer
Modular Organization • The ICS Organizational Structure Develops In A Modular Fashion Based Upon The Size And Nature Of The Incident. • The System Builds From The Top Down, With Initial Responsibility And Performance Placed Upon The IC. • At The Very Least, An IC Must Be Identified On All Incidents, Regardless Of Their Size. • The Specific ICS Organizational Structure Will Be Based Upon The Management Needs Of The Incident.
Pre-designated Incident Facilities • Emergencies Require A Central Point For Communications And Coordination. • There Can Be Two Central Points • Incident Command Post (ICP) • Emergency Operations Center (EOC) ICP EOC
Pre-designated Incident Facilities - ICP • Incident Command Post (ICP) • The “On-scene” Location Where The IC Develops Goals And Objectives, Communicates With Subordinates, And Coordinates Activities Between Various Agencies And Organizations. • An ICP Should Provide Command With The Following: • A Place Safe From The Hazardous Material(s) Or Problem. • A Quiet (Relatively) Place Where You Can Think, Discuss, And Decide. • A Vantage Point From Which To See (When Possible). • Inside Lighting and A Place To Write And Record. • Protection From The Weather and the Media • Staff Space
Pre-designated Incident Facilities- ICP • Incident Command Post (ICP) • Minimum Equipment Should Include: • Radio Capability To Communicate With Responders, Mutual Aid Units, And Facility Maintenance/Operations Personnel • Cellular Telephone Capability • Copies Of Appropriate Emergency Response Guidebooks And Other Reference Sources • Technical And Administrative Support, Including The Possible Use Of Laptop Computers, Personal Data Assistants (PDA), And Related Electronic Equipment • ICS Command Vests • Tactical Command Chart • Pair Of Binoculars
Pre-designated Incident Facilities - EOC • Emergency Operations Center (EOC) • Where The ICP Is The Nerve Center Of On-scene Operations And Is Usually Located Near The Scene Of The Emergency. • The EOC Is Located Based Upon Physical Needs And Safety Requirements, The EOC Is Normally Remote From The Emergency Scene. • It Is Important To Understand The Differences And Relationship Between The ICP And The EOC. • The ICP Is Primarily Oriented Towards Tactical Control Issues Pertaining To The “On-scene” Response. • The EOC Deals With Both Strategic And External World Issues, And Coordinates All Logistical And Resource Support For On-scene Operations.
Pre-designated Incident Facilities - EOC • An EOC Should Be Equipped With The Following: • Radio, Phone And Fax Communications. • Detailed Copies Of Area And Facility Maps, Site Plot Plans, Emergency Pre-plans, Hazard Analysis Documentation, And Other Related Information. • Copies Of Appropriate Emergency Response Guidebooks And Other Reference Sources. • General Administrative Support, Including Writing Boards, Incident Status And Documentation Boards, Telefax And Copying Machines.
Pre-designated Incident Facilities - EOC • An EOC Should Be Equipped With The Following: • Electronic Communication Capabilities, Including The Use Of Computers And Email, The Internet And Intranet, And The Development Of Incident Or Agency-specific Websites. Always Consider The Security Of Your Electronic Communication System. • Television Sets And Am/Fm Radios To Monitor Local And National News Coverage. • Back-up Emergency Power Capability To Support EOC Lighting, Telephone, And Radio Base Stations
Pre-Designated Incident Facilities - Staging Area • Staging Area is The Designated Location Where Emergency Response Equipment And Personnel Are Assigned On An Immediately Available Basis Until They Are Needed. • The Staging Area Should Be Clearly Identified Through The Use Of Signs, Color-coded Flags Or Lights, Or Other Suitable Means. • Staging Becomes An Element Within The Operations Section.
Integrated Communications • Communications Are Critical To The Safe And Efficient Incident Management. • Communications Are Managed Most Effectively Through The Use Of A Common Communications Center And Network. • Whenever A Situation Is Encountered Which Could Immediately Cause Injuries The Term “Emergency Traffic” Should Precede The Radio Transmission. • Communications Of A Sensitive Nature Should Not Be Given Over Non-secure Cellular Telephones Or Radios Which Can Be Monitored.
106 Unified Command Structure • A Unified Command Structure Simply Means That The Key Agencies That Have Statutory Or Jurisdictional Responsibility Jointly Contribute To The Process Of: • Determining Overall Incident Priorities And Strategic Goals. • Selection Of Tactics For Achieving Those Incident Priorities And Strategic Goals. • Ensuring Joint Planning For Tactical Activities. • Ensuring That Integrated Tactical Operations Are Conducted. • Maximizing Use Of All Assigned Resources. • Resolving Conflicts Between The Players.
Unified Command Structure … • The Sooner A Unified Command Structure Is Established, The Better. • Unified Command Is Not Management By Committee • There Will Always Be A Lead Agency Or One Agency Which Has 51% Of The Vote As Compared To The Other Players. • When Multiple Agencies Are Involved In The Response, The Selection Of The Operations Section Chief Must Be Made By The Mutual Agreement Of The Unified Command Team.
Consolidated Plan Of Action • Every Emergency Incident Needs Some Form Of An Integrated Action Plan (IAP). • The IAP Consists Of Incident Priorities, Strategic Goals, Tactical Objectives, And Resource Requirements. • Emergencies Involving Multiple Organizations Or Jurisdictions Working Within A Unified Command Structure Require Consolidated Action Planning. • As More Organizations Arrive At The Emergency Scene, They Bring With Them Individual Agendas And Objectives.
Consolidated Plan Of Action … • These Agendas And Objectives May Be Driven By: • Facility Responsibilities • Legally Mandated Requirements • Financial Interests • Contractual Responsibilities • Specific Mission Goals And Charters. • A Consolidated Action Plan Is Used To Ensure That: • Everyone Works Together Toward A Common Emergency Response Goal; That Is, Protecting Life Safety, The Environment, And Property.
Consolidated Plan Of Action … • Individual Response Agendas Are Coordinated So That Personnel And Equipment Are Used Effectively And In A Spirit Of Cooperation And Mutual Respect. • Everyone Works Safely At The Scene Of The Emergency. • The Most Effective Way To Ensure That A Consolidated Plan Of Action Is Implemented Is To Have The Senior Representative Of Each “Major Player” At The Incident Present At The Icp And/Or EOC At All Times.
Comprehensive Resource Management • The Incident Commander Must Analyze Overall Incident Resource Requirements And Deploy Available Resources In A Well-coordinated Manner • Logistics And Resource Management Have Been The Achilles Heel Of Many A Response. • Among The Resource Management Lessons Learned As A Result Of Previous Incidents And Exercises Are: • Get It Done Rather Than Argue About Whose Problem It Is.
Comprehensive Resource Management ... • It Is Easier To “Gear Down” Operations Than It Is To Play “Catch Up.” If You Think You Will Need It, Call For It! • Overreact Until The Emergency Situation Is Fully Assessed And Completely Understood. • React To The Incident Potential, Not The Existing Situation. • Don’t Pay For Stuff You Don’t Need - Downsize Once The Emergency Has Been Stabilized And It Is Safe To Do So. • Accept Help From Others. • Demobilization Is As Important As The Initial Ramp Up And Mobilization.
Managing The Incident: Hazmat Group Operations • Depending Upon The Scope And Complexity Of An Incident, Special Operations May Be Managed As Either A Branch Or Group Within The ICS Organization. • The Hazardous Materials Group Is Normally Under The Command Of A Senior Hazmat Officer • Known As The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor Who, In Turn, Reports To The Operations Section Chief Or The Incident Commander. • The Scope And Nature Of The Problem Will Determine Which Roles Are Staffed.
Managing The Incident: Hazmat Group Operations • Primary Functions And Tasks Assigned To The Hazardous Materials Group Include: • Safety Function • Entry / Back-up Function • Decontamination Function • Site Access Control Function • Information / Research Function • Secondary Functions And Tasks Assigned To The Hazardous Materials Group Include: • Medical Function • Resource Function
110 Hazardous Materials Group Organizational Chart
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor • The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor Will Be Trained To The Hazardous Materials Technician Level And Will Normally Be Filled By Either The HMRT Team Leader Or HMRT Officer. • Based Upon The IC's Strategic Goals, The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor Develops The Tactical Options To Fulfill The Hazmat Portion Of The IAP
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor • Responsible For Ensuring That The Following Tasks Are Completed, Including: • Hazard Control Zones Are Established And Monitored. • Site Monitoring Is Conducted To Determine The Presence And Concentration Of Contaminants. • Site Safety Plan Is Developed And Implemented. • Establish Tactical Objectives For The Hazardous Materials Entry Team Within The Limits Of The Team's Training And Equipment Limitations. • Ensure That All Hot Zone Operations Are Coordinated With The Operations Section Chief Or Incident Commander To Ensure Tactical Goals Are Being Met.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer (Assistant Safety Officer – Hazmat) • The Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer Reports To The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor And Is Subordinate To The Incident Safety Officer. • The Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer Must Have A High Level Of Technical Knowledge To Anticipate A Wide Range Of Safety Hazards. • While It Is Not The Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer's Job To Make Tactical Decisions Or To Set Goals And Objectives, It Is Their Responsibility To Ensure That Operations Are Implemented In A Safe Manner.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer (Assistant Safety Officer – Hazmat) • Specific Functions And Responsibilities Of The Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer Include: • Advise The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor Of All Aspects Of Health And Safety, Including Work/Rest Cycles For The Entry Team. • Coordinate Site Safety Activities With The Incident Safety Officer, As Appropriate. • Possess The Authority To Alter, Suspend, Or Terminate Any Activity That May Be Judged To Be Unsafe. • Participate In The Development And Implementation Of The Site Safety Plan.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Specific Functions And Responsibilities Of The Hazardous Materials Group Safety Officer Also Include: • Ensure The Protection Of All Hazardous Materials Group Personnel From Physical, Chemical And/Or Environmental Hazards And Exposures. • Identify And Monitor Personnel Operating Within The Hot Zone, Including Documenting And Confirming Both "Stay Times" And "Work Times" For All Entry And DECON Personnel. • Ensure That EMS Personnel And/Or Units Are Provided, And Coordinate With The Hazardous Materials Medical Leader. • Ensure That Health Exposure Logs And Records Are Maintained For All Hazardous Materials Group Personnel, As Necessary.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Entry Team / The Entry Leader (Entry Officer) • The Entry Leader Is Responsible For The Following: • Recommend Actions To The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor To Control The Emergency Situation Within The Hot Zone. • Implement All Offensive And Defensive Actions, As Directed By The Hazardous Materials Group Supervisor, To Control And Mitigate The Actual Or Potential Hazmat Release. • Direct Rescue Operations Within The Hot Zone, As Necessary. • To Coordinate All Entry Operations With The DECON, Hazmat Information, Site Access, And Hazardous Materials Medical Units.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Entry Team • Personnel Assigned To The Entry Team Will Include The Entry And Back-up Teams, And Personnel Assigned For Entry Support. • The Back-up Team Is The Safety Team That Will Extract The Entry Team In The Event Of An Emergency.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Decontamination Team / DECON Leader • Are Responsible For The Following: • Determine The Appropriate Level Of Decontamination To Be Provided. • Ensure That Proper DECON Procedures Are Used By The DECON Team, Including DECON Area Set-up, DECON Methods And Procedures, Staffing, And Protective Clothing Requirements. • Coordinate DECON Operations With The Entry Leader, Site Access Control And Other Personnel Within The Hazardous Materials Group.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • The DECON Team Is Responsible For The Following: • Coordinate The Transfer Of Decontaminated Patients Requiring Medical Treatment And Transportation With The Hazardous Materials Medical Group. • Ensure That The DECON Area Is Established Before Any Entry Personnel Are Allowed To Enter The Hot Zone. • If Rapid Rescue Operations Are Required, Establish An Emergency DECON Capability Until A Formal DECON Area Can Be Set-up. • Monitor The Effectiveness Of DECON Operations. • Control All Personnel Entering And Operating Within The DECON Area.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Site Access Control / Site Access Control Leader • Are Responsible For The Following: • Monitor The Control And Movement Of All People And Equipment Through Appropriate Access Routes At The Incident Scene To Ensure That The Spread Of Contaminants Is Controlled. • Based Upon Recommendations From The Entry, DECON, And Info / Research Units, Oversee The Placement Of The Hazard Control Zone Lines. • Establish A Safe Refuge Area And Appoint A Safe Refuge Area Manager. • Ensure That Injured Or Exposed Individuals Are Decontaminated Prior To Departure From The Incident Scene.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Information / Research Team • The Hazardous Materials Information Team Are Responsible For The Following: • Provide Technical Support To The Hazardous Materials Group. • Research, Gather And Compile Technical Information And Assistance From Both Public And Private Agencies. • Provide And Interpret Environmental Monitoring Information, Including The Analysis Of Hazardous Materials Samples. • Provide Recommendations For The Selection And Use Of Protective Clothing And Equipment. • Project The Potential Environmental Impacts Of The Hazardous Materials Release.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Medical Unit • The Hazardous Materials Medical Unit And Hazardous Materials Medical Leader Are Responsible For The Following: • Provide Pre-entry And Post-entry Medical Monitoring Of All Entry And Back-up Personnel. • Provide Technical Assistance For All EMS-related Activities During The Course Of The Incident. • Provide Emergency Medical Treatment And Recommendations For Ill, Injured Or Chemically-contaminated Civilians Or Emergency Response Personnel. • Provide EMS Support For The Rehab Area.
Hazardous Materials Group Staffing • Hazardous Materials Resource Unit • Directed By The Hazardous Materials Resource Leader • At Some “Working” Incidents, A Hazardous Materials Resource Function May Be Established To Support Hazardous Materials Group Activities. • This Unit Will Be Located In The Cold Zone And Will Be Responsible For Acquiring All Supplies And Equipment Required For Hazardous Materials Group Operations, Including Protective Clothing, Monitoring Instruments, Leak Control Kits, Etc. • Also Responsible For Documenting All Supplies And Equipment Expended As Part Of The Emergency Response Effort.
114 Managing The Incident: Street Smarts • Emergency Response Operations Are Increasingly Being Judged In How Responders Perform In Two Similar Areas. Performance and Perception • Consider The Following “Figure Skating” Analogy Comparison: • Technical Merit – In Simple Terms Did Responders Make The “Problem” Go Away. • Artistic Impression – Our Version Of Artistic Impression Is How Well We Manage The “External World Impacts” Of The Problem.
Managing The Incident: Street Smarts • The Overall Performance Of A Hazmat Response Program Will Be Based Upon Two Interrelated Factors: • The Implementation Of A Timely, Well-trained And Equipped Emergency Response Effort • The Effective Management Of The Interpersonal And Organizational Dynamics Created By The Event, Particularly Those Dealing With External Groups And Audiences (E.G., The Media, Government Agencies, And The Public-at-large). • Remember - Perceptions Are Reality.
Command And Control • Experienced Officers Often Regard The Problem In Enemy-oriented, Pessimistic Terms. • Confident IC's And Hazmat Officers Refuse To Be Overwhelmed As They Assume Command. • Effective IC's Recognize That A Few Minutes Spent Establishing Effective Command And Control At The Beginning May Save Hours In The Course Of A Long-term Incident. • “Command Presence.” Must be Strong, If Not, Both Individual And Organizational Free-lancing Can Result.