2010-2011 Global I Study Guide
Enlightenment #1 • Who was the first to argue the sun, not the Earth was at the center of the universe? • Nikolas Copernicus
Enlightenment #2 • What is an example of how one law could explain all behavior in the universe? • Sir Isaac Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
Enlightenment #3 • What is Francis Bacon’s contribution to the scientific revolution? • The Scientific Method
Enlightenment #4 • What is the scientific method? • A systematic way to learn about the natural world. Observations and experimentation lead to specific principles. • Ask a questions • Do background research • Develop a hypothesis • Experiment • Analyze the data • Share results
Enlightenment #5 • What is rationalism? • A system of belief where reason is the chief source of human knowledge
Enlightenment #6 • Which Enlightenment philosopher believed people were born with a blank mind, or “tabula rasa”, and were molded by their experiences in life? • John Locke
Enlightenment #7 • What did Enlightenment philosophers, especially Isaac Newton, compare the universe to? • A giant machine that was governed by natural laws that humans could figure out
Enlightenment #8 • What is Jean Jacques Rousseau’s concept of the social contract? • It is an argument against the divine right of rulers. All members of a society agree to be governed by the general will of the whole – what is going to be best for the whole society, not necessarily the individual
Enlightenment #9 • What document were Baron de Montesquieu ideas about separation of powers used in? • The United States Constitution
Enlightenment #10 • Which composer was known as a child prodigy? • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Enlightenment #11 • How did the Ptolemaic system organize the universe? • Geocentric – Earth at the center with all other heavenly bodies orbiting it
Enlightenment #12 • What discoveries did Galileo make regarding the solar system? • Using his telescope, Galileo observed mountains on the moon, sun spots, moons orbiting Jupiter, and that planetary objects are made from matter similar to that found on Earth
Enlightenment #13 • Who is considered the “Father of Modern Rationalism”? • Rene Descartes
Enlightenment #14 • What does laissez faire mean? • “hands off”; used by Adam Smith in his study of economics, The Wealth of Nations, to mean the government should keep their hands out of economic affairs
Enlightenment #15 • What are natural rights? • Rights that all people are born with because they are human. • People form governments to protect those natural rights • Governments that fail to do so, or abuse their power, must be overthrown by the people • Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness (property)
Enlightenment #16 • What were the three duties of government according to Adam Smith • Protect citizens from invasion (Army) • Defend citizens from injustice (Police) • Maintain public works such as roads, canals, bridges, etc.
Enlightenment #17 • What was the artistic style developed during the 1730’s that emphasized grace? • Rococo
French Revolution #1 • What did King Louis XVI do to try and stop France from collapsing financially? • Called a meeting of the Estates General for the first time in 175 years. This was France’s parliament and was made up of representatives from all three estates of society
French Revolution #2 • Why did the mob storm the Bastille? • It was a symbol of royal authority and oppression. They also believed many of the inmates of the prison were political prisoners who were wrongfully jailed. Finally, the Bastille also contained an armory, so the rebel mob wanted the stores of powder and ammo.
French Revolution #3 • Which estates were exempt from paying the taille (tax)? • The First Estate (Clergy) • The Second Estate (Nobility)
French Revolution #4 • Did the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen include women? • No – the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen was written by Olympe de Gouges in response.
French Revolution #5 • What is the Tennis Court Oath? • An oath taken by the members of the newly formed National Assembly, formerly representatives of the 3rd Estate at the Estates General, to continue meeting until they had produced a new constitution for France.
French Revolution #6 • What event forced Louis XVI to accept the National Assembly’s decrees and return to Paris with his family as prisoners? • The Women’s March on Versailles
French Revolution #7 • Who had lawmaking power according to the Constitution of 1791? • An elected legislative assembly would have lawmaking power, with the king serving as head of state. This form of government is called a limited monarchy • Voting requirements: male, 25 or older, own a certain amount of property
French Revolution #8 • Who seized political power from the Legislative Assembly? • The Paris Commune took power after losses in battle to Austria and continued economic woes.
French Revolution #9 • Who were the sans-culottes? • They were members of the Paris Commune whose name means “without breeches” in reference to the fancy clothes worn by the nobility. They were trying to cast themselves as representatives of the common man despite the fact most were neighborhood elites.
French Revolution #10 • Who was the infamous and ruthless head of the Committee of Public Safety? • Maximilian Robespierre
French Revolution #11 • What was the primary duty of the Committee of Public Safety? • To defend France from all enemies, foreign and domestic
French Revolution #12 • Why did the National Convention pursue a policy of de-Christianization? • They wanted to create a new democratic republic of virtue. They wanted to strip Christians of their devotion to their faith and turn it towards being good citizens of France.
French Revolution #13 • What French government did Napoleon overthrow to establish his consulate? • The Directory
French Revolution #14 • What was the most important of the seven legal codes established by Napoleon? • The Civil (Napoleonic) Code because it preserved the gains of the French Revolution: equality under the law, religious toleration, the right to choose your profession, end to serfdom and feudalism
French Revolution #15 • Under Napoleon, how did someone get promoted? • Based on merit – do a good job, prove you are capable and trustworthy, and advance
French Revolution #16 • What were two major reasons for the collapse of Napoleon’s Grand Empire? • Great Britain’s continued domination of the seas • Feelings of nationalism in conquered territories. Nationalism is the unique cultural identity of a people and their pride in this identity.
French Revolution #17 • What did Napoleon’s armies spread as they amassed territory for his empire? • Nationalism: • Because they were hated as oppressors • Because they were an example of how powerful a united country could be • The ideals of the French Revolution
French Revolution #18 • What military tactic contributed significantly to Napoleon’s reputation as revolutionizing warfare? • Divide and conquer!
French Revolution #19 • How did the Russians defeat Napoleon? • By retreating deeper and deeper into Russian territory, burning crops and useful supplies as they went. Eventually Napoleon’s supply lines were overextended and his troops trapped by the harsh Russian winter. When 40,000 of the original 600,000 troops made it back to Poland they were attacked by others in their weakened state.
French Revolution #20 • Who was the commander who defeated Napoleon in his final battle? • The Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo, Belgium.
Age of Revolution #1 • What was Montesquieu’s idea that influenced America’s founding fathers? • Separation of powers – federal government divided into a legislative, judicial, and executive branch
Age of Revolution #2 • What amendment to the U.S. Constitution gives women the right to vote? • 19th Amendment
Age of Revolution #3 • What document protects rights and promotes toleration in America? • The Bill of Rights
Age of Revolution #4 • What effect did Napoleon’s overthrowing of the monarchies in Spain and Portugal have on their colonial empires in Latin America? • It weakened their ability to govern their colonial possessions and enabled the native population to rebel against their colonial rule.
Age of Revolution #5 • Where did the mestizos rank in the social order of Latin America? • They were the largest and lowest social class and held positions as servants or laborers
Age of Revolution #6 • How were the Creoles and the 3rd Estate in France similar? • Both were the revolutionary group. Like members of the 3rd Estate they studied the ideas of the Enlightenment and wanted to put them into practice. Creoles were also treated like 2nd class citizens, much like the “commoners” in France.
Age of Revolution #7 • What two men are known for liberating Peru, among several other Latin American nations? • Jose de San Martin • Simon Bolivar
Age of Revolution #8 • What inspired village priest Miguel Hidalgo to rebel against Spanish rule in Mexico? • His studies of the French Revolution
Age of Revolution #9 • What does the phrase, “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” refer to? • Natural rights!
Age of Revolution #10 • When did John Lock believe a government could and should be overthrown? • When it fails in its duty to defend its citizens natural rights or abuses its power
Age of Revolution #11 • What is the 1st American Constitution? • Articles of Confederation
Age of Revolution #12 • Who did San Martin and Bolivar lead revolts against in South America? • The Spanish and Portuguese