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Japan Earthquake Friday March 11 2011 PowerPoint Presentation
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Japan Earthquake Friday March 11 2011

Japan Earthquake Friday March 11 2011

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Japan Earthquake Friday March 11 2011

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  1. Japan Earthquake Friday March 11 2011

  2. The full scale: before and after in Sendai

  3. Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPANFriday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC The earthquake occurred 130 km (80 miles) east of Sendai and 373 km (231 miles) northeast of Tokyo. Images courtesy of the US Geological Survey

  4. Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPANFriday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC The earthquake occurred 130 km (80 miles) east of Sendai and 373 km (231 miles) northeast of Tokyo. Images courtesy of the US Geological Survey

  5. The Tohoku Quake: 2:46 PM Local Time, 3/11/2011 • The tragedy in Japan started with an earthquake. At 2:46 PM on April 11th, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake occurred at 38.322 degrees N, 142.369 degrees E, at a depth of 19.9 miles, near the east coast of Honshu Island. • The epicenter of that submarine quake was: 80 miles East of Sendai, Honshu (population 1 million+) 109 miles East of Yamagata, Honshu 109 miles East North East of Fukushima, Honshu 231 miles Northeast of Tokyo (population 13 million+) See: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/

  6. Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPANFriday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. . In downtown Tokyo, large buildings shook violently. Elsewhere severe flooding occurred due to a tsunami generated by the earthquake. USGS Part of houses swallowed by tsunami burn in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture (state) after Japan was struck by a strong earthquake off its northeastern coast Friday, March 11, 2011. New York Times

  7. Fires after earthquakes are often caused by broken gas pipelines CNN reported “The quake rattled buildings and toppled cars off bridges and into waters underneath. Waves of debris flowed like lava across farmland, pushing boats, houses and trailers toward highways.” A number of fires broke out including one at an oil refinery which was burning out of control. Giant fireballs rise from a burning oil refinery in Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture (state) after Japan was struck by a strong earthquake off its northeastern coast Friday, March 11, 2011. Los Angeles Times

  8. It Was the 4th or 5th Largest Quake Since 1900 At magnitude 9.0, the Tohoku earthquake was the largest quake in Japan since Japan began tracking earthquakes 130 years ago, and the 4th or 5th largest quake worldwide since 1900. Some other extremely serious earthquakes:-- 1960 Valdivia Chile Earthquake (magnitude 9.5)-- 1964 Prince William Sound Alaska Earthquake (9.2)-- 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake (9.1-9.3 (est.))-- 1952 Kamchatka Earthquake, USSR (9.0)-- 1833 Sumatra, Indonesia Earthquake (8.8-9.2 (est.))-- 1906 Ecuador-Colombia Earthquake (8.8)-- 2010 Chile Earthquake (8.8)-- 1700 Cascadia Earthquake (8.7-9.2 (est.)) -- 1730 Valparaiso, Chile, Earthquake (8.8-9.0 (est.)See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_earthquakes

  9. Danger from the nuclear power station damaged by the earthquake

  10. Houses and debris burn near Sendai Airport.

  11. Facade of a damaged apartment building in central Tokyo's Higashi-Azabu district.

  12. Facade of a damaged apartment building in central Tokyo's Higashi-Azabu district.

  13. Natural-gas-storage tanks burn at a facility in Chiba Prefecture, near Tokyo.

  14. A bicycle lies under rubble in central Tokyo.

  15. Stranded people take a rest at a hotel lobby after subway and train were suspended after an earthquake, in Tokyo.

  16. People evacuated and the injured in emergency shelters and hospitals

  17. Ordinary people and rescuers search amongst the debris

  18. Drowned towns and radiation leaks – • More than 1,700 people officially dead or missing, with many more unaccounted for, including 9,500 people in one town. • Radiation leaks from a damaged nuclear plant after an explosion blows off the roof, raising fears of a meltdown at the nuclear power station north of Tokyo. • Three workers suffer radiation exposure near Fukushima nuclear plant. • Several large towns and cities are more than a third submerged by waters and debris. • Some 215,000 people living in government shelters. • Four million people without power, a million with no water. • Experts say the total insured loss could be up to $15bn.

  19. Globally, this is the 5th largest earthquake since 1900 (or 4th depends on M). Chile 1960 Alaska 1964 Sumatra 2004 Russia 1952 Japan 2011 Ecuador 1906 Chile 2010 Alaska 1965

  20. The earthquake caused some damage – but the tsunami was devastating Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars in northern Japan and pushed ships aground. The tsunami waves traveled far inland, the wave of debris racing across the farmland, carrying boats and houses with it. The tsunami, seen crashing into homes in Natori, Miyagi prefecture. AP Houses were washed away by tsunami in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture in eastern Japan, after Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the northeastern coast. New York Times

  21. Tsunami (harbor wave) Seismic sea waves (NOT tidal waves) Caused by processes that abruptly move large volumes of ocean water: earthquake submarine volcanic eruption coastal/submarine landslide or rockfall extraterrestrial impact

  22. How do EQ cause tsunami? http://geology.com/articles/tsunami-geology.shtml

  23. Tsunami causes • Unless there is an underwater landslide, strike-slip EQ WILL NOT cause tsunami • Most tsunami generated by subduction zones • Chile • Alaska • Japan • Cascadia • Philippines • Caribbean • New Zealand

  24. What caused the tsunami and why was it so deadly? Your Task: Design your own diagram to explain what causes a tsunami and why tsunamis are so deadly

  25. Tsunami wavelength • Long wavelengths (over 100 km) • Periods longer than 1 hour 316,800 ft = 60 miles

  26. Tsunami wave speed • Travel at high speeds :400 to 500 mph (~200 yards/sec) • Alaska to CA 4 to 7 hrs • Alaska to Hawaii 4 to 6 hrs • Chile to Hawaii 14 to 15 hrs • Chile to Japan 22 to 33 hrs

  27. Tsunamis – Tidal Waves

  28. Projected travel times for the arrival of the tsunami waves across the Pacific Nearby the earthquake there are only minutes to evacuate. However, in many other regions there is advance warning. A tsunami map shows projected travel times for the Pacific Ocean. This map indicates forecasted times only, not that a wave traveling those distances has actually been observed.. NOAA

  29. Tsunami nears shore • As wave gets into shallow water bottom of wave drags along ocean floor • Top of wave still moving fast: can cause cresting of wave, and breaking onto shore

  30. Tsunami run-up • Run-up = measurement of height of water onshore observed above a reference sea level • Generally don’t get big gigantic wave • Water comes as a fast moving rise in tide that rapidly moves inland • NOT JUST ONE WAVE…multiple waves coming in about ½ hour or so apart • See tsunami wave simulator http://www.seed.slb.com/en/scictr/watch/living_planet/tsunami_wave/index.htm

  31. Damage due to tsunami • Waves often full of debris (trees, cars, pieces of wood etc.) • As the wave recedes, the debris drags more stuff with it • Can recede as much as a km out to sea, leaving shoreline empty with flopping fish, boats, etc. on the bottom

  32. The Tsunami hits

  33. Loss of Life and Property Damage • The dead and missing now number 28,232,* and that number is still increasing. An additional 4,916 were injured by the disasters in Japan. Nearly 60,000 pieces of property were completely destroyed, and over 158,000 were partially damaged. • For comparison, 4,081 people died from Hurricane Katrina, and 2,976 people died from the attacks on 9/11. * National Police Agency of Japan, Emergency Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters, April 14th, 2011, 7:00PMhttp://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/index_e.htm

  34. The Most Expensive Natural Disasters • Emerging estimates are that this earthquake and resulting tsunami will be the most expensive natural disasters in history. • The World Bank released an early estimate* that damage might reach $235 billion, but the Japanese Cabinet Office has mentioned costs of up to 25 trillion yen** ($309 billion)… and those costs do not include lost economic productivity due to power outages, or the broader impact of the nuclear crisis. • Hurricane Katrina, for comparison, cost an estimates $81 billion. * http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPHALFYEARLYUPDATE/Resources/550192-1300567391916/EAP_Update_March2011_japan.pdf ** http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/cae69a7523db45408eeb2b3a98c0c9c5/Article_2011-03-23-AS-Japan-Earthquake-Economy/id-b7f626429b4a4900bfb1731387d50e7f

  35. Boats are swept by a wave after a tsunami and earthquake in Asahikawa city in Japan on Friday. The biggest earthquake to hit Japan since records began 140 years ago struck the northeast coast on Friday, triggering a tsunami that swept away everything in its path, including houses, ships, cars and farm buildings on fire.

  36. Streets are flooded after a tsunami and earthquake in Kesennuma city, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

  37. The oncoming tsunami strikes the coast in Natori City, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan on Friday. The biggest earthquake to hit Japan in 140 years struck the northeast coast on Friday, triggering a tsunami that swept away everything in its path, including houses, cars and farm buildings on fire. A tsunami warning has been issued for the entire Pacific basin except for the mainland United States and Canada following a huge earthquake that hit Japan on Friday, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said.

  38. A fire burns at a passenger terminal at Sendai Airport after the airport was swamped by a tsunami in northeastern Japan in the wake of a major earthquake.

  39. Effects of the Tsunami

  40. Effects: The day after in Kesennuma City, Miyagi (the worst hit area)

  41. The effects: buildings have been destroyed, dragged around and destroyed, whilst people are in shock

  42. Responses: The emergency services are trained to deal with the effects of earthquakes but were not prepared for anything on this scale

  43. Amazing stories - man rescued after his house has been dragged 10 miles out to sea by the returning water