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FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

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FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

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  1. Chapter 13 FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  2. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  3. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • September 1805 • Lewis and Clark encountered the Nez Perce • Named by French “pierced nose” • Some wore dentalium shells in their noses • Dentalia are small, honed mollusk shells • Expedition in Trouble • Half starved and out of supplies • Nez Perce brought the men back to health • Cared for their horses for months • Nice or dumb?

  4. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Peace Endured for 70+ Years • No Nez Perce killed a white man • Gold and Manifest Destiny changed that • Friends No More-Treaty of 1855 • Governor Isaac Stevens of Washington Territory • Called for Council with Nez Perce • Told white men were coming • Land would be set apart to keep two sides separate

  5. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Nez Perce Resisted • Tuekakas, Old Joseph • Headman of Wallowa Band • No man owned any part of the Earth • Could not sell what they did not possess • Nez Perce Resisted • Tuekakas DID NOT SIGN • Moreover, could only speak for his band • Nez Perce tribal structure

  6. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Nez Perce Resisted • Aleiya, Lawyer • Headman of Lapwai Band • Signed treaty • Nez Perce Resisted • Tuekakas returned to Wallowa Valley • Corner of NE Oregon • Near present day Enterprise

  7. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  8. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  9. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Wallowa Resisted • Joseph’s band lived for a few years in peace • Had large herds of horses and cattle • Used as trade with whites, when needed • Rest of needs provided by home country • Wallowa Resisted • Tuekakas warned Nez Perce of whites • Don’t accept even a blanket • Could claim land was traded for it

  10. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • New Treaty, Old Story • 1863 Treaty • Took away Wallowa Valley • ¾ of remaining Nez Perce land • Moved all Nez Perce to rez in Idaho with Lawyer • New Treaty, Old Story • Tuekakas DID NOT SIGN new treaty • Lawyer and other Lapwai chiefs did • Tuekakas referred to it as “Thief Treaty” • Set up poles around land to mark boundaries

  11. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS Young Joseph Chief Lawyer

  12. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • New Leadership • 1871 • Old Joseph died • Son, HeinmotTooyalaket took leadership • Known as Young Joseph • New Leadership • Wallowa band ordered to move to Lapwai • Joseph refused • Appealed to President Grant

  13. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • New Leadership • June 1873 • Grant issued order to halt white settlement in Wallowa • New Leadership • Shortly after, commissioners arrived • Ordered to begin forming new agency in Valley • Joseph responds p. 318

  14. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Trouble in the Wallowa • Whites began encroaching on Nez Perce • Gold found • Trouble in the Wallowa • Miners stole horse; stockmen stole cattle • Would brand and claim as theirs • Accuse Nez Perce of theft for stealing them back

  15. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Trouble in the Wallowa • Gov’t opens valley for settlement in 1875 • Wallowa band given “reasonable time” to move to Lapwai Agency • Trouble in the Wallowa • Young Joseph refused to leave Wallowa Valley • 1877 • Gen. O.O. Howard (One-Armed Soldier Chief) • Sent in for forced relocation

  16. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS Gen. Oliver Otis “O.O.” Howard

  17. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • O.O. Howard • History of Indian hunting • Had subdued Cochise and his Apache • O.O. Howard • Had treated the Apache fairly • Nearly ended his Army career • Forced to change attitude toward Natives

  18. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • O.O. Howard • Privately felt differently • “…great mistake to take from Joseph and his band that valley.” • May 1877 • Called Joseph to Lapwai to establish surrender date

  19. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • 1877 Lapwai Council • Joseph reported to Howard’s Council with: • White Bird, Looking Glass (Band Chiefs) • Ollokot (Joseph’s Brother) • Toohoolhoolzote (Nez Perce Prophet)

  20. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • 1877 Lapwai Council • Toohoolhoolzote • Nez Perce spiritual leader • Tall, VERY UGLY man • Eloquent and well-spoken • Described as a “fugitive from hell” • Presented at Council as spokesman for Wallowa • Council opened with tense exchange • See pg. 320-321

  21. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS Looking Glass Ollokot White Bird

  22. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • 1877 Lapwai Council • Arguing between Howard and Toohoolhoolzote continued • To end argument • Howard ordered prophet arrested • Deadline Set • Wallowa Band given 30 days to report to Lapwai • Joseph protested • Needed more time to gather people, livestock, etc.

  23. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Deadline Set • Snake River also running very high in Spring • Wanted to wait until Fall • Howard warned that if Wallowa missed deadline by one day, soldiers would come • Deadline Set • Joseph had no alternative • Soldiers were in Wallowa when he returned • Met with band soldiers and agreed to surrender

  24. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Tough Decisions • Some warriors began speaking of war • Toohoolhoolzote had been released • Cried for blood for embarrassment of being arrested • Tough Decisions • Camp began move to Lapwai • Many livestock were left behind to be taken by whites • Others stolen while Nez Perce were crossing the Snake

  25. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Tough Decisions • In effort to stop thefts, crossing hurried • More livestock drowned in current • No human lives lost, however • Tough Decisions • Post-crossing tribal council held • Toohoolhoolzote, Ollokot, White Bird called for war • Joseph held firm on peace

  26. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Act of War • That evening a small band of warriors left camp • Killed 11 whites as revenge • For loss of home and stock • Act of War • Joseph trapped • See pg. 322 • Does this scenario seem familiar?

  27. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Fighting Begins • Nez Perce crossed from Rocky Canyon to White Bird Canyon • Encountered Gen. Howard’s men on June 17 • Outnumbered 2 to 1 • Fighting Begins • Nez Perce killed 1/3 of Howard’s men • Forced rest to retreat

  28. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  29. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Fighting Begins • Howard responds • Sent in heavy reinforcements 10 days later • Fighting Begins • Nez Perce avoided fighting main Army body • Fought advanced detachments • Criss-crossed mountains on way to Clearwater to hook up with Chief Looking Glass

  30. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Red Napoleon Myth • Joseph was not a military strategist • Military tactics left to warriors • Red Napoleon Myth • Joseph in charge of camp • Setting up and taking down • Meals • Well-being of elderly, women, and children

  31. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Red Napoleon Myth • Origin of Myth • Results from end of Nez Perce Conflict • Red Napoleon Myth • Nez Perce engaged in War of Flight • Did not want to fight US Army • Hoped to make it to Canada to join Sitting Bull

  32. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  33. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • On The Run • Wallowa band met with Looking Glass band • 250 warriors, 450 noncombatants • All possessions and 2,000+ horses • Had also picked up guns and ammo after White Bird • On The Run • Ultimately hoped to reach Canada • Join Sitting Bull • Cross Lolo Trail through Bitterroot Mountains

  34. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

  35. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • On The Run • Crossed into Montana July 25 • Army had set up small barricade across trail • Met with Capt. Charles Rawn • On The Run • Ollokot, Looking Glass, White Bird • Told Rawn they wanted to pass without fight • Rawn instructed them to give up arms 1st

  36. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • On The Run • Rawn wanted more meetings • Needed to stall the Nez Perce • Howard coming from West • Colonel John Gibbon from the East • On The Run • Nez Perce talked to Rawn for 2 days • Started to leave on morning of July 28

  37. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • On The Run • Looking Glass and Warriors • Formed screening line • On The Run • Joseph and Non-combatants • Took livestock up canyon • Had already gotten around barricade by the time Rawn figured out what was going on

  38. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • On The Run • Rawn discovered ploy and pursued • Fought Nez Perce rear-guard • Ultimately returned to useless barricade • Flight Slows Down • Headed south to Big Hole • Traditional hunting ground • Unaware of Col. Gibbon moving in • Ultimately hoped Big Hole could become new home

  39. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Battle of Big Hole • August 9 Col. Gibbon (One Who Limps) reached Big Hole • Column of Army and volunteers set up on bluff • Would launch surprise attack at dawn • Battle of Big Hole • Attacked at dawn • See page 324

  40. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Battle of Big Hole • Fight begins • Page 324-325 • Battle of Big Hole • Nez Perce counter-attacked • Were superior marksman to Gibbon’s men

  41. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Battle of Big Hole • Gibbon attempted to set up Howitzer • Nez Perce captured and dismantled cannon • Nez Perce marksman made Col. Gibbon “One Who Limps Twice” • Battle of Big Hole • Joseph got non-coms out of camp • Nez Perce turned south • Hoped to trick pursuing troops

  42. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS Battle of Big Hole

  43. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Flight South • Nez Perce killed 38 and wounded 40+ • Nez Perce suffered 80 deaths • Over 2/3 were women and children • Many bodies were shot multiple times • Heads beat in with rifle butts • Flight South • Gen. Howard saved Gibbon

  44. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Flight South • Warriors caught up to Joseph • Warned of One-Armed-Soldier Chief’s presence • Flight South • Nez Perce picked up pace • Howard caught up in 6 days • Nez Perce launched attack

  45. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Flight South • Attack slowed Gen. Howard • Caught off-guard • Nez Perce captured many pack mules and supplies • Flight South • Nez Perce crossed Targhee Pass • Entered Yellowstone Park on August 22

  46. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • In the Yellowstone • Gen. Sherman was in park • Part vacation • Part mad that the Nez Perce were making his Army look stupid • In the Yellowstone • Gen. Sherman called for troops • 7th Cavalry 1st to respond • 1 year since Little Big Horn

  47. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS Nez Perce in Yellowstone Park

  48. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • In the Yellowstone • 7th and Nez Perce saw each other daily • Nez Perce outmaneuvered Army • Engaged in skirmish at Canyon Creek • In the Yellowstone • Following Canyon Creek • Nez Perce turned North to Canada • Gen. Nelson “Bear Coat” Miles • On forced march from Ft. Keogh to cut off Nez Perce

  49. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS Nez Perce path to Canada Gen. Miles path from Ft. Keogh

  50. FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS • Race to Canada • September 23 • Bands crossed Missouri at Cow Island Crossing • Attacked small supply outpost • Able to capture some supplies and food • Race to Canada • September 26 • No soldiers had been spotted for 3 days • People tired, horses worn • Small buffalo herd had been spotted