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Classifying Matter: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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Classifying Matter: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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  1. Classifying Matter:Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures By Liz LaRosa revised by Karen Meadows www.middleschoolscience.com 2009

  2. Pure Substances • A sample of matter that has definite chemical and physical properties. Atoms Elements Compounds Molecules

  3. Elements • pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substance by physical or chemical means.

  4. Compounds Pure substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds. • Made of elements in a specific ratio that is always the same • Has a chemical formula • Can only be separated by chemical means, not physically H2O NaCl CO2

  5. Mixtures • A combination of two or more pure substances that are not chemically combined. • substances held together by physical forces, not chemical • No chemical change takes place • Each item retains its properties in the mixture • They can be separated physically Chem4kids.com

  6. Mixtures vs. Compounds http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/elements_com_mix_6.shtml

  7. Can you identify the following? You will be shown a series of photos. Tell if each photo represents an item composed of an element, compound, or mixture. Review: • An element contains just one type of atom. • A compound contains two or more different atoms joined together. • A mixture contains two or more different substances that are only physically joined together, not chemically. • A mixture can contain both elements and compounds.

  8. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Rocks

  9. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Rocks

  10. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Copper

  11. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Copper Cu

  12. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Jelly Beans

  13. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Jelly Beans

  14. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Table Sugar

  15. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Table Sugar C12H22O11

  16. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Diamond

  17. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Diamond C

  18. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Tea

  19. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Tea

  20. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Salt

  21. Element, Compound, or Mixture? NaCl Salt

  22. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Neon Gas

  23. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Ne Neon Gas

  24. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Salad

  25. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Salad

  26. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Pure Water

  27. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Pure Water H2O

  28. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Aluminum

  29. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Aluminum Al

  30. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Lemonade

  31. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Lemonade

  32. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Silver

  33. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Silver Ag

  34. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Sand

  35. Element, Compound, or Mixture? Sand

  36. Notes • Detailed notes are located at: http://www.middleschoolscience.com/elements-compounds-mixtures-notes-isn.pdf • Flow Chart: http://www.middleschoolscience.com/matter-flow-chart-isn.pdf

  37. Mixtures • A combination of 2 or more substances that do not combine chemically, but remain the same individual substances • Can be separated by physical means Two Types: • Heterogeneous • Homogeneous

  38. Heterogeneous Mixture • “Hetero” means different • Visibly different substances or phases (solid, liquid, gas) Suspension • A special type of heterogeneous mixture • A mixture of larger particles that eventually settle

  39. Homogeneous Mixture • “Homo” means the same • Has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout • Maintains one phase (solid, liquid, gas) • Commonly referred to as solutions • Example: Salt water

  40. Methods of Separating Mixtures

  41. Filtration can be used to separate an insoluble substance from a soluble substance

  42. Evaporation can be used to separate a solute from the solvent in a solution

  43. Evaporation of sea water to produce salt