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Community and Problem-Oriented Policing

Community and Problem-Oriented Policing. Seventh Edition. Chapter 4. Protecting the Homeland: An International Problem for Local Police. Learning Objectives (1 of 2).

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Community and Problem-Oriented Policing

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  1. Community and Problem-Oriented Policing Seventh Edition Chapter 4 Protecting the Homeland: An International Problem for Local Police

  2. Learning Objectives (1 of 2) 4.1 The many “faces” of terrorism, to include definitions and types, the threat posed by lone wolf terrorists in the United States, and the weapons of cyberterrorism and bioterrorism. 4.2How law enforcement has had to adapt and evolve for combating terrorists. 4.3 The legislative measures that have been enacted in the war against terrorism.

  3. Learning Objectives (2 of 2) 4.4 Whether or not the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) is legal and beneficial. 4.5The role of local police in providing homeland security. 4.6 The general role of community policing in providing homeland security.

  4. Introduction • There has been no cessation of attempts by would-be terrorists • Terrorism is more serious and evolving • Protecting our homeland requires the development of new investigative techniques, specialized training, and employment of individuals with specialized, and highly technological backgrounds • There are “many faces” of terrorism

  5. The Many Faces of Terrorism: Definitions and Types • FBI defines terrorism: • “Unlawful use of force against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” • Domestic and international • Terrorist attacks can take many forms • Can be perpetrated by hate-filled supremacists, anti-government extremists, and radical separatist groups

  6. Homegrown Violent Extremists • Home Violent Extremists (HVE) • Can include U.S. born citizens, naturalized citizens, green card holders, foreign students, or illegal immigrants • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) • Michael Morell from CIA estimates 3,500 to 5,000 “jihadist wannabes” have traveled outside the U.S. to seek terrorist training

  7. The Lone Wolf and Homegrown Terrorists • 45 Americans from 2010 to 2015 have been killed by homegrown terrorists • Most attackers are white males averaging 29 years old • Serious concern needs to be given to self-radicalized, homegrown, lone offenders • Need for increase homeland security and increased public vigilance and awareness

  8. An International Problem • Terrorism is on the rise world-wide • Recruiting “foot soldiers” via the Internet is easier • Attacks focused on civilian targets are increasing • Terrorists are using more traditional methods of violence • Examples: Paris January 2015, Nairobi Kenya September 2013, and Norway July 2011 • These demonstrate a need for our law enforcement to become more knowledgeable about terrorist methods here and abroad

  9. Cyberterrorism-and the Asian Threat • INTERPOL-cybercrime is one of the fastest growing areas of crime • Includes: attacks against hardware and software, financial crimes, and sexploitation • Cyberterrorism includes: identity theft, attacks on computer data and systems, child sexual abuse, auction fraud, and financial schemes • Ove a billion personal data records were breached • Cyberespionage: Chinese hackers

  10. Bioterrorism • Bioterrorism involves the use of chemical/biological agents • Toxins, viruses, bacteria, or gases • Bioterrorism may be used the way explosives have been used to date • Drawbacks: requires specially trained individuals, hard to produce large quantities, difficult to discern correct dosage, and difficult to transport

  11. Law Enforcement Strategies: Adapting and Evolving (1 of 3) • Police have four means of addressing terrorism: • Gather raw intelligence • Determine measures to counter or thwart terrorist activities • Assess how to minimize damage that can be done by terrorists through rapid response and containment • Apprehend and convict individual terrorist and dismantle their organizations

  12. Law Enforcement Strategies: Adapting and Evolving (2 of 3) • DHS’s mission is the protection of the U.S. from terrorism • National Terrorism Advisory System • Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative • “If You See Something, Say Something” • Homeland Security Information Network • Grant Funding • Screening for Airline Passengers • Secure Flight

  13. Law Enforcement Strategies: Adapting and Evolving (3 of 3) • FBI lists terrorism as its highest priority and is the federal law enforcement agency investigating and preventing domestic and international terrorism • Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs): located around the nation and bring together state, local, and federal agencies • National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC): integrates and analyzes intelligence • Fusion Centers: focal points within the state for the receipt, analysis, gathering, and sharing of information

  14. Other Approaches in the Law Enforcement Toolkit: Legislative Measures • USA PATRIOT Act: expanded the federal government’s ability to investigate Americans without establishing probable cause if there is reasonable grounds to believe there may be a national security threat • Military Commissions Act (MCA): President is allowed to establish military commissions to try unlawful enemy combatants • Posse Comitatus Act of 1878: military can provide personnel and equipment for certain special support activities • National Incident Management System (NIMS)

  15. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: How to Balance Security and Privacy • Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)- drones • Remote controlled • Designed to carry nonlethal payloads for reconnaissance, command and control, and deception • Come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and capabilities • Used to seek out and surveil persons planning or involve in terrorist activities • Concerns over security and privacy issues still need to be addressed

  16. The Role of Local Police: Need for Vigilance • All first responders need to be vigilant in identifying the signs of terrorism • Police, fire, medical, military, and health officials • Most terrorism committed in the U.S. since 9/11 have been foiled • Question is when an attack will occur, not whether an attack will occur • Police need to look at targets in their locations

  17. Having Plans in Place (1 of 2) • Local approaches to terrorism readiness includes: • Processes: policies and procedures that address the need for communicating, planning, and training • Resources: acquiring essential equipment, databases, and other assets • Personnel: increasing personnel alone does not improve preparedness

  18. Having Plans in Place (2 of 2) • Local police must ensure that: • Ingress and egress from the attack site are managed • Community policing remains in place • Manage and share information

  19. Engaging the Community and Using Social Media • Often there are no visual or physical cues that identify someone as a violent extremist • Engaging the community and raising the awareness can enhance safety of the community • Community members can be made aware of the common indicators of radicalization to violence through educational campaigns and partnerships • Youth are often the targets for radicalistic recruiters

  20. The Role of Community Policing: Building Trust • Community policing can play an integral role in homeland security • Problem-solving process is well suited for preventing and responding to terrorist activity • Using existing data sources, agencies can conduct target vulnerability assessments and develop risk management and crisis plans • Empowering officers at lower levels with greater decision-making authority will also be valuable in a crisis

  21. Developing Programs and Using Social Media • Boston, Massachusetts: PortWatch program • LAPD and LASD provide their officers and deputies with comprehensive CVE training and some officers are trained as Terrorism Liaison Officers • Social media can be used to post questions and encourage comments between police and the community • Community members can also become active in addressing crime and disorder

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