Siberia 40,000 years ago Europe 40,000 years ago North America 12,000-30,000 years ago Oceania 1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E. Southwest Asia 100,000 years ago Australia as many as 60,000 years ago Chile 12,000-13 ,000 years ago Human Origins 200,000-250,000 years ago Possible coastal routes of human migration Possible landward routes of human migration Migrations in Oceania Migrations of Homo sapiens“Peopling of the Earth”
How did the Austronesian migration differ from other early patterns of human movement?
Remains discovered at Blombos Cave are one example of the more complex culture some humans were developing as many as 90,000 years ago. View looking out of Blombos Cave to the Indian Ocean The people who lived in this seaside camp: • Made sharp stone spear points using methods that appeared in Eurasia only 50,000 or more years later. • Made objects from bone, the earliest use of this material known. • Scored bits of bone and ochre with marks that may have had symbolic meaning. Bone points from the cave Ochre piece with scrape marks. A person may have scraped the ochre to get powder to use to make body paint.
The Neolithic Revolution Key Concept 1.2
Neolithic Revolution Farming changed the way humans lived: Around 8,000 B.C., the Neolithic Revolution occurred & early humans discovered how to farm & domesticate animals People no longer had to be nomads Food surpluses led to population increases Farming villages became established along river valleys for their good soil & irrigation
The Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic Revolution (9,000BCE-3,500BCE) • Sometimes termed the Agricultural Revolution. • Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia. • Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary. • Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurs.
animals and plants One of the major changes is reflected in this frieze on a wall in Mesopotamia (today Iraq) : which reflects the DOMESTICATION of… Horticulture=hoe-based agriculture 9
Crop-growing (cultivating domesticated plants), and… 10
the development of… FARMING COMMUNITIES 11
The Neolithic Revolution To Farm or Not to Farm???
The Neolithic Revolution Agriculture Slowly Spreads
Big Eras 4-9 1,000 years ago Today 10,000 years ago Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Population Intensification Surplus Food Specialization Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION Big Era 2 Big Era 3 14
Agriculture changed how people lived • Agriculture (Farming) • Agricultural Surplus • People Settle & Pop. grows • Growth of towns, then Cities • Division of Labor (Specialization) • Government • Social Stratification & Patriarchy!! • Record Keeping • Cultural Expression • Trade Characteristics of Civilization
Key Concept 1.3: Core Civilizations The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies.
Water!! River Valley Civilizations (with exception of Americas) Opportunity to adapt environment Suitable for domesticated plants/animals Relatively stable (a bit hot) climate Common Characteristics ??
Early River Valley Civilizations Environment • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable • No natural barriers • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings Mesopotamia • Flooding of the Nile predictable • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages • Deserts were natural barriers Egypt • Indus flooding unpredictable • Monsoon winds • Mountains, deserts were natural barriers Indus River Valley • Huang He flooding unpredictable • Mountains, deserts natural barriers • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations China • Mountains and ocean natural barriers • Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations Mesoamerica & Andes
Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Egypt in the Nile River Valley Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley Olmecs in Mesoamerica Chavín in Andean South America Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished.
Early civilizations based around city-states Power new states replaced city-states as main political unit. Rulers were viewed as divine. Kept power by maintaining a strong military. Competition between city-states and nomads lead to an increase in conflict! The first states emerged within core civilizations.
Examples of early empires. • Mesopotamia- started as city-states (4000BC) • Priests military leaders • Rulers viewed as representatives of gods • Empires emerged as city-states competed for power/resources. • Akkad (2330-2100 BCE) • Sargon the Great: Built first empire c. 2340 BCE. • Babylonian • Hammurabi: King of Babylon c.1792 BCE • Assyrian • Fierce military tactics • Library *** Why so much conflict in this region (Mesopotamia)?
Babylonian Empire (1800-1500 B.C.) Most important king was Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code 282 laws that formed the basis of the Babylonian legal system Different punishments for rich & poor “Eye for an eye” Key Civilizations in Mesopotamia
Pharaohs (God-Kings) Considered gods on Earth who ruled over gov’t, religion, & the military This is known as a theocracy *Comparison: Mesopotamian kings were representatives of gods, but they themselves were not considered gods Egyptian Religion & Politics
Pyramids Egyptians believed kings had eternal spirits & Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs(resting places from which their rulers could reign forever after death) Egyptian Religion & Politics
Shang China1600 BC – 1027 BC Yellow / Huang He River Valley & Yangtze Mandate of Heaven- power to rule came from heaven Dynastic cycle linked to the mandate
POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRUCTURE • Pastoralists(nomadic herders) interact quite often with “urban societies” • 2 examples would be through new weapons and modes of transportation. • Examples: Iron weapons and chariots • What would the effect be on “settled societies”?
Architecture and Urban Planning Specialization, conquest, and trade promote large building projects.
Ziggurats • Prevalent in Mesopotamia. • Usually the most prominent building in the city. • Made of mud bricks. • Dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city. • Priests/Priestesses controlled these structures.
Egypt Pyramids & Monuments Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
Planned Cities: Indus Mohenjo Daro
Arts and Artisanship Promoted by the Elites (Political and Religious)
Sumerian Religious Sculpture • C. 2400 BCE • Made of marble. • Roughly 30 inches tall. • This is an example of a “worshipper”. • Humans and gods were thought to be physically present in their statues.
Egyptian Wall Paintings • Nebamun Hunting Scene. • C.1400 BCE • Located in his tomb. • Egyptian noble.
Eventually would branch out to include other forms of “writing”. Examples: - cuneiform – Mesopotamia - hieroglyphs – Egypt - alphabets – Phoenicia Systems of Record Keeping
Cuneiform • C. 3000 BCE in Mesopotamia. • A reed stylus was used to make “wedge-shaped” impressions on clay tablets which were then baked or dried. • PicturesSymbols Phonetic system
States would eventually use writing to develop legal codes. Often reflected existing hierarchies and helped the government rule over the people. Legal Codes
The Code of Hammurabi • Read the Code of Hammurabi excerpt on p. 13 in the Duiker book. • What do these points of law from the Code of Hammurabi reveal to you about Mesopotamian society?
The Vedic religion – Indus River Valley Hebrew monotheism – Palestine Zoroastrianism – Persia New religious beliefs develop later in the period that in most cases offer a contrast to the “polytheistic” beliefs of early religions. New Religious Beliefs
The Vedic Religions • Religion of Aryans, an Indo-European group (pastoralists), that migrated into the Indus River Valley c.1500 BCE. • Name comes from the collection of sacred texts called the Vedas. • Precursor to Hinduism.
Religion in Mesopotamian Hearth • At first polytheistic, gods had human characteristics • Toward the end of the period, Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion similar to Judaism emerged and will be most noted in the next period with the Persian
Hebrew Monotheism • Abraham considered the “Father” of Hebrew monotheism also known as Judaism. c. 2000 BCE • Worship of “one god” is relatively new. • Moses and the 10 Commandments. • Christianity and Islam have connections to Judaism.
Zoroastrianism • Founder was Zoroaster who was born in Persia c. 660 BCE. • Monotheistic: Ahuramazda is the only god. • Dualism – * Ahuramazda=Good * Ahriman=Bad ***Man has “free will” to follow who he chooses.
Trade begins locallyregionaltransregional. Goods, culture, and technology are all exchanged. Diffusion- the spread of ideas and goods. TRADE: Regional and Transregional
Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley • Harappan seals have been found in Mesopotamia which leads us to believe that the 2 regions trade goods. • The Indus Valley had cotton which probably was what sparked trade between the 2 regions.
Egypt and Nubia • What did they have to offer? • Egypt: stone dishes, painted boxes, wooden furniture, and paper. • Nubia: ivory, incense and spices
Varna (Social Hierarchy) Caste System Aryans brought Vedic religious beliefs, the foundation of Hinduism Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables