Unit 11, Journal #3 Describe in 3-4 sentences what you think life was like as a soldier during the Civil War. Then, describe what you think life was like for those left at home throughout the war in another 3-4 sentences. You may use your carousel notes..
Before the Battle • 1863 had begun well for the South • Confederates inflict bloody defeat on Union at Fredericksburg, VA • Failure to storm Confederate stronghold (Dec. 13, 1862) • North defeated again in the Battle of Chancellorsville, VA • Outmaneuvered (April 30-May 6, 1863) • General Stonewall Jackson is shot by his own men in an accident and dies of Pneumonia • Amputation • Mistaken for a “Yankee” (May 1863) • Lee decides to invade North in Spring-Early Summer ‘63: • To gain supplies • Force Lincoln to pull Union forces away from Vicksburg, MS • Invasion in North would hurt Lincoln’s political power- tip towards Copperheads
After the Battle • More than 23,000 Union casualties and 28,000 Confederate casualties • More than 30% of men • Corpses everywhere, stench unbearable • Lee gave up hopes of invading the North and retreated back to Virginia (through a pelting rain) • Lee turned in his resignation which Jefferson Davis did not accept • “It’s all my fault” – Lee’s reaction to loss at Gettysburg • North is enthusiastic about big victory! • The North wins the Battle of Vicksburg (May 18-July 4, 1863)
Significance of Gettysburg • Turning point in the war • Crippled South so badly, Lee never invaded Northern state again • Lincoln gives the Gettysburg Address in November 1863. • Gettysburg Address helped our crippled nation realize that we were not just a collection of individual states.
Gettysburg Address • Nov. 1863 ceremony to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg. • Lincoln gave 2 minute speech • “Remade America” • After his address and following the Civil War people started to say the “United States is” instead of the “United States are”
Wearing Down of Confederacy • Defeat at Vicksburg and Gettysburg cost Confederate manpower… • Already low on food, shoes, uniforms, guns, and ammunition • Break down: • Desertions—left because they knew their families were suffering • Left to fight for the Union • Movements for peace by newspapers, legislatures, and individuals in various states
New UNION Strategy: Total War • General Grant appointed William Tecumseh Sherman as commander in Mississippi • Both men believe in total war • Total War – fight military, government and CIVILIANS to destroy all ability for enemy to fight • Reasoning: • Civilians produce the weapons, food, and transportation; • Their strength keeps the army going IS IT EVER JUSTIFIED TO KILL CIVILIANS IN A BATTLE? WHY OR WHY NOT? • Attack and attack again • Huge losses for Union, but they could afford it, South could not • Burned towns, killed animals
About three miles from Sparta we struck the 'Burnt Country,' as it is well named by the natives, and then I could better understand the wrath and desperation of these poor people. I almost felt as if I should like to hang a Yankee myself. There was hardly a fence left standing all the way from Sparta to Gordon. The fields were trampled down and the road was lined with carcasses of horses, hogs, and cattle that the invaders, unable either to consume or to carry away with them, had wantonly shot down to starve out the people and prevent them from making their crops. The stench in some places was unbearable; every few hundred yards we had to hold our noses or stop them with [cologne]… Source: Eliza Frances Andrews, The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864-1865 (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1908), pp. 32-33.
Sherman’s March • Sherman moves south to Atlanta • Occupies September, 1864 – huge transportation center • Confederate army tries to circle around him and cut his railroad supply lines, but Sherman takes the offensive. • Ex: Being “aggressive” in sports • Sherman abandons his supply lines and marches “to the sea” • Creates a path of destruction; lives off the land as he marches • Burned most of Atlanta • Reached the ocean and took Savannah. • Left to help Grant “wipe out Lee” • Followed by 25,000 former slaves • Inflicted more damage down through SC • As they got close to the end (NC), stopped burning towns and handed out food and supplies
Surrender at Appomattox • Clear Confederacy was over by March 1865 • Grant and Sherman approached Richmond, Confederate Govt. fled and set fire to the city • April 9, 1865 – Lee and Grant met at Appomattox Court House in VA to arrange formal surrender • Very generous terms (Lincoln’s request) • WHY? DID THEY DESERVE IT? • Within 1 month, all resistance ended.