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Reconstruction in the South

Reconstruction in the South

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Reconstruction in the South

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  1. Reconstruction in the South Chapter 13, Section 3

  2. Review Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts. The Fifteenth Amendment said that African Americans can vote So is everything in the South okay, now?

  3. African American Activism • Many African Americans registered to vote. • Began pushing for the equality promised by the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment. • Question: What did these laws promise? • African Americans began to succeed in politics • During Reconstruction: • More than 600 will serve in state governments • 16 will be elected to the U.S. Congress

  4. Reconstruction Governments • Many northern Republicans came to the south to participate in the state governments. • Both whites and African Americans • Question: How do you think that white southerners felt about that? Explain your answer.

  5. Reconstruction Governments • White southerners called these people carpetbaggers. • Type of cheap suitcase • Joked that the newcomers were “needy adventurers” of “the lowest class” who could carry every thing they owned in a carpetbag. • Former Confederates were even angrier with southern whites who had supported the Union and now supported Reconstruction • Called scalawags – scoundrels • Viewed as “southern renegades, betrayers of their race and country”

  6. Reconstruction Governments • Reconstruction supporters soon formed a Republican alliance. • Hoped to: • Seize economic and political power from the rich planters and former Confederates • Improve conditions for poor white farmers and African Americans • Used political leverage to draft new state constitutions • Abolished property qualifications for jurors and political candidates • Guaranteed African Americans the right to vote • Raised taxes to finance: • Road, bridge, and railroad construction • Free public education

  7. Question Do you think that southern whites who were former slave-holders, white supremacists, and die-hard Confederates were just going to sit back and let all of this happen without a fight? Explain your answer.

  8. The Ku Klux Klan • Angry white southerners formed secret terrorist groups to prevent African Americans from voting. • 1866 – The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was formed by 6 southerners • Grew quickly, attracting planters, lawyers, and other professionals, as well as poor farmers and laborers • The head of the Klan – “Grand Wizard” Nathan Bedford Forrest, a former slave-trader and Confederate general – warned Republicans that he intended to “kill the Radicals”

  9. The Ku Klux Klan • Goals: • Destroy the Republican Party • Keep African Americans from voting • Frighten African American political leaders into submission • Chase African Americans and pro-Reconstructionist whites out of the South • Actions: • Murdered or attacked many Republican politicians and leaders – both black and white • Murdered or attacked thousands of African Americans whom they saw as “too successful” • Burned homes, schools, and churches • Stole livestock

  10. The Ku Klux Klan • African Americans struck back whenever possible. • Retaliated by burning barns • Learned of possible attacks and would organize themselves in defense of the intended victim • African Americans demanded that Congress do something about the KKK • 1870 & 1871 – Enforcement Acts • Allowed the government to combat terrorism with military force and to prosecute guilty individuals • Democrats called these laws Force Acts and claimed that they limited individual freedom. • Question: What do you think about the Enforcement Acts? Were they fair to all involved? Why or why not?

  11. Creative Representation • African Americans suffered some very hostile situations during Reconstruction, but demanded something be done to protect their rights. • Draw an image or icon that represents this problem and how it worked in America • Surround your image with a word cloud including at least 5 nouns, 5 verbs, and 5 adjectives • Discuss and develop with your partner • You have 8 minutes

  12. Changes in Reconstruction As KKK violence declined, and the U.S. started to experience some economic troubles, the attention of Republicans is going to shift away from Reconstruction. Question: Who is going to suffer?

  13. Changes in Reconstruction • A severe depression, known as the Panic of 1873 hit the nation. • Fear and anger caused by the depression turned voters against the Republican-controlled Congress. • Calls to restrict the voting rights of immigrants and the urban poor weakened public support for African Americans’ rights as well. • Democrats gained more seats in Congress. • Republicans made one final effort to enforce Reconstruction: • Civil Rights Act of 1875 – prohibited public businesses from discriminating against African Americans

  14. Changes in Reconstruction • Republicans were beginning to see Reconstruction as a political burden • Southern Democrats picked up on this right away, and became bolder in their racism. • During an election, white Democrats in Mississippi shot and killed African Americans who voted Republican. • These supporters of white-controlled governments called themselves the Redeemers, claiming to be saving their states from the Republicans. • Focused on the Presidential Election of 1876

  15. Changes in Reconstruction • A Presidential Election - 1876 • Democrat • Samuel J. Tilden • Republican • Rutherford B. Hayes • Hayes wins by one electoral vote. • Democrats not happy • Dispute vote counts in four states

  16. Changes in Reconstruction • To end the crisis, Congress came up with the Compromise of 1877 • In return for the Democrats’ acceptance of Hayes as president, the Republicans agreed to withdraw the remaining federal troops from the South. • Question: What will happen to Reconstruction now?

  17. Changes in Reconstruction Without federal protection, the Reconstruction state governments fell State constitutions were rewritten by the Redeemers Reconstructionist reforms were removed. Question: Who is going to suffer the consequences?

  18. Creative Representation • Republicans worked very hard to help African Americans during Reconstruction, but after the Panic of 1873 and the Election of 1876, they began to think of it as a burden and allowed the Redeemers to take over. • Draw an image or icon that represents this problem and how it worked in America • Surround your image with a word cloud including at least 5 nouns, 5 verbs, and 5 adjectives • Discuss and develop with your partner • You have 8 minutes