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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 Early Exploration and Settlement pg 2

  2. 1. When did scientists believe people first arrived in North America? (1) During the Ice Age Section 1- The Earliest Americans-pg 6

  3. Describe the Ice Age (3) Earth’s climate so cold that water froze into glaciers Ocean/water levels dropped to reveal a land bridge bx northeastern Asia & Alaska Land bridge was called the Bering Land Bridge

  4. ? is migration? (1) A movement of people or animals from one region to another—takes place over a period of time

  5. Tell about Paleo-Indians (2) Early Asians who crossed Bering Land Bridge into North America They were hunter-gatherers who lived by hunting animals & gathering wild plants

  6. ? are environments? (1) Climates & landscapes that surround living things

  7. 6. ? are societies? (1) Groups that share a culture

  8. ? is culture? (1) A group’s set of common values & traditions such as language, government, family relationships

  9. Tell about Mesoamerica (2) Today this area is Central America Occupied by Olmec & Maya civilizations

  10. 9. Tell about Olmec civilization/society (2) Created number and calendar systems Developed a method of writing using glyphs, or symbols to represent ideas

  11. 10. Tell about Maya civilization (3) Built stone temples, palaces, & bridges Created calendars Studied math & astronomy

  12. 11. ? are to totems? (2) Ancestor or animal spirits on tall wooden poles Noted along early civilizations in the Northwest

  13. 12. Tell about Iroquois League (2) Political confederation made up of Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, & Seneca nations Goal was to wage war or make peace with non-Iroquois & strengthen alliance against invasions

  14. Study for quiz on Section 1 for tomorrow

  15. Tell about the Commercial Revolution in Europe (3) It was a dramatic change in the way people did business Many cities grew rich by specializing in certain crafts Wealth became more important in European society for status & power Section 2- The Age of Exploration-pg 12

  16. ? is capital? (1) Money or property that is used to earn more money as in banks and loans

  17. Tell about joint-stock companies (2) Businesses in which a group of people invest together Investors share in any losses or profits

  18. Who did Europeans trade with during the Commercial Revolution? (1) Much of the wealth through trade was done with Asia & Africa

  19. 5. How was early trade done bx Europe & Asia? (2) Overland routes were very dangerous, very long, & very harsh conditions Merchants took the risks due to the huge profits

  20. Explain progress of water routes to Asia & Africa (2) Ship designs improved Europeans searched for water routes to bypass Venice, who had a monopoly, or sole economic control of Asian products via the Mediterranean Sea

  21. 7. How did Marco Polo contribute to Europe’s interest in Asia? (2) He wrote a book about his travels to China Many Europeans wanted to learn more about Asia & spread Christianity

  22. 8. List some advances that improved water routes across Atlantic Ocean (2) Astrolabe-used to know ship location by charting position of the stars Better charts/maps magnetic compass

  23. How did Portugal lead the European race for a sea route to Asia?(3) Prince Henry, aka the Navigator, set up a learning center for learning more about sailing and finding new routes Dias was first to sail around the southern tip of Africa da Gama first to reach India

  24. 10. Tell about Christopher Columbus(2) First to believe Asia could be reached sailing west across Atlantic instead of east An Italian sponsored by Spain for his 3-ship expedition

  25. 11. Tell about Northwest Passage(2) While Spain & Portugal explored Central & South America, other Europeans explored North America These Europeans wanted to find a route through North America to sail their ships from the Atlantic to the Pacific

  26. 12. Tell about Columbian Exchange (2) Exchange of new plants, animals, & diseases bx the “New World”—the Americas & the “Old World”---Asia, Africa, Europe This Columbian Exchange dramatically changed the world

  27. Study for quiz on Section 2 for tomorrow

  28. Tell about conquistadors (1) Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas Section 3-Spanish America-pg20

  29. 2. Tell about Cortes(1) Governor of Cuba sent Cortes, a conquistador, to explore a wealthy land to the west of present-day Mexico

  30. Tell about Moctezuma II (1) Ruler & king over Aztec Empire & land Cortes explored

  31. 4. Tell ? happended bx Spain’s Cortes & the Aztec Empire (2) At first Moctezuma believed Cortes to be a god & welcomed him Cortes eventually defeated Moctezuma’s Aztec Empire for Spain

  32. Tell about Pizarro (3) Spanish conquistador, explored present-day Chile to Columbia in the Andes of South America Area occupied by Incas who were no match for Pizarro Pizarro took over Inca Empire, second greatest empire of the Americas

  33. 6. Tell about Ponce de Leon(1) Spanish explorer who searched Florida for the magical Fountain of Youth

  34. 7. Tell about Cabrillo (1) Spaniard who sailed along present-day California coast giving Spain claim to Pacific coast of North America

  35. 8. ? made up the Spanish Empire in the Americas? (1) Present day South America, Central America, & southern part of what is now the United States

  36. 9. ? were the 3 kinds of settlements in Spanish America? (3) Pueblos-used as trading posts Missions-used to convert American Indians to Catholicism Presidios-military bases to protect towns & missions

  37. 10. Tell about El Camino Real(1) Aka “the Royal Road” was a network of hundreds of miles of roads that connected the scattered communities of New Spain

  38. Tell about encomienda system (3) Rewarded settlers for their service to Spain Gave these settlers right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work In return, these settlers had to protect Native American & convert them to Christianity

  39. Need to know terms for quiz on Section 3 for tomorrow

  40. 1. Tell about Martin Luther(2) Protested policies of Catholic Church Felt Catholic Church was too wealthy & abused its power Section 4-The Race for Empires- pg 24

  41. 2. Tell about Protestant Reformation (2) Religious movement to reform Catholic Church Began in Germany then spread throughout Europe

  42. 3. Tell about Protestants (2) Protested Catholic Church & its rules Thought pope had too much power

  43. 4. Tell about printing press (2) Machine that produced printed copies Helped spread ideas of the Reformation

  44. 5. ? became of conflict bx Catholics & Protestants? (1) Conflicts led to a civil war throughout Europe

  45. 6. Tell about Anglican Church (2) King Henry VIII founded Church of England aka Anglican Church Defied authority of pope & angered Catholics when he made himself head of the church

  46. 7. Who led Spain & England during the Protestant Reformation in the late 1500’s? (2) Spain—King Phillip II, a Catholic England—Queen Elizabeth I, an Anglican

  47. Who was Sir Francis Drake?(2) Most successful English sea dog---sailors who raided Spanish treasure ships Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth despite requests from King Phillip to have him punished

  48. 9. Tell about the Spanish Armada (2) King Phillip formed a huge navy to overthrow Queen Elizabeth and her sea dogs and Anglican Church King Phillip was defeated & worsened Spain’s inflation

  49. 10. ? is inflation? (1) Rise in price of goods caused by an increase in the amount of money in use

  50. 11. ? area did France occupy in North America? (1) “New France” spread out from the St. Lawrence River with French fur traders, explorers, & missionaries