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Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy

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Ecosystems and Energy

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  1. Ecosystems and Energy • Honors Biology • Ms. Leyda • 2012-2013

  2. What is Ecology ? The study of how organisms interact with one another and their non-living environment

  3. Biosphere Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms So Then What is an Ecosystem ? Looking at the chart to the right.. Our BIOSPHERE is the part of the Earth where the organisms exist And an ECOSYSTEM is that area where the living and non-living things interact.

  4. Biosphere Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms So Then What is an Ecosystem ? Looking at the chart to the right.. A COMMUNITYis different populations that live together in a defined area And an POPULATION is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

  5. Parts of an Ecosystem BIOTIC components are the living parts of the ecosystem An Ecosystem is made of BIOTIC and ABIOTIC parts Examples are: • Plants • Animals • Fungi • Bacteria

  6. Parts of an Ecosystem ABIOTIC components are the NON-living parts of the ecosystem An Ecosystem is made of BIOTIC and ABIOTIC Components Examples are: • Water • Air • Temperature • Sunlight

  7. Energy for the Ecosystems Every ecosystem on Earth gets its energy from the same source: The SUN !!!

  8. Looking closely at Ecosystems All Ecosystems are made of four components linked by the flow of energy. These components are: • Primary Producers • Consumers • Decomposers • Abiotic Environment

  9. Looking closely at Ecosystems External energy source PRIMARY PRODUCERS CONSUMERS DECOMPOSERS ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT

  10. Primary Producers Producers make their own food, from abiotic factors, such as sunlight or heat from chemical reactions.

  11. Primary Producers Producers are also known as Autotrophs Some examples are: • Plants • Algae • Bacteria

  12. Consumers Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms

  13. Consumers Consumers are also known as Heterotrophs Consumers can be: • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Detritivores (Decomposers)

  14. Consumers Herbivores eat only plants. Herbivore Examples: • Large Mammals (Such as cattle & deer) • Some Insects

  15. Consumers Carnivores eat other animals Carnivore Examples: • Lions, Tigers • Wolves • Sharks • Snakes

  16. Consumers Omnivores eat both plants and animals Omnivore Examples: • Humans • Bears • Mice • Pigs

  17. Consumers Detritivores eat dead plants and animals (also called decomposers) Detritivore Examples: • Worms • Beetles • Bacteria • Fungi

  18. Food Chain A Food Chain tells us what eats what in an ecosystem. It shows the series of organisms through which food energy is passed.

  19. Food Chain The arrow means “is eaten by” In this case the dragonfly is eaten by the frog.

  20. Food Chain Remember… ALL food chains begin with a Producer ( Also known as an Autotroph)

  21. Food Web In an ecosystem, there are many producers and consumers. Instead of a food chain, we can use a food web.

  22. Humans Blue whale Sperm whale Killer whale Elephant seal Crabeater seal Leopard seal Emperor penguin Adélie penguins Petrel Squid Fish Carnivorous plankton Herbivorous zooplankton Krill Phytoplankton Food Web A food web shows the complex relationship formed by the overlapping and interconnecting food chains.

  23. Food Web To better understand a food web, we can look at an energy pyramid. An energy pyramid is a way to graph how much energy is passed up the food chain from one organism to the next.

  24. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Each layer of the pyramid is called a Trophic Level. A Trophic Level is a level of nourishment in a food chain.

  25. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. The pyramid first shows us the Producers. Remember… Producers get their energy from the sun. Producers are the first and largest Trophic Level. Producers

  26. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Second, we see the Primary Consumers The Primary Consumers get their energy from eating the Producers. Primary Consumers can be either Herbivores or Omnivores. Primary Consumers

  27. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Third, we see the Secondary Consumers The Secondary Consumers get their energy from eating the Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers are Carnivores or Omnivores Secondary Consumers

  28. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Fourth, we see the Tertiary Consumers The Tertiary Consumers get their energy from eating the Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers are Carnivores or Omnivores Tertiary Consumers

  29. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Some energy pyramids can have a fifth Trophic Level. Usually this fifth level is humans.

  30. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Biomass is the total amount of living tissue within each trophic level.

  31. Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Only 10% of the energy from the prior trophic level is passed on. This is because energy is lost to the environment as heat

  32. Trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers Energy Pyramid If an energy pyramid consists of plants that contain 500,000 calories of food energy, how many calories of energy would be available to consumers at each of the next three trophic levels?

  33. Trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers Energy Pyramid Primary Consumers: 500,000 cal x .1 = 50,000 calories Secondary Consumers: 50,000 cal x .1 = 5,000 calories Tertiary Consumers: 5,000 cal x .1 = 500 calories

  34. Trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers Food Web What does these energy numbers tell us?? There are very few Tertiary consumers, because it takes a HUGE amount of food energy to support them. For a large population to exist, it needs to feed from the LOWEST trophic level possible, because there is more food energy available.

  35. Other Pyramid types Besides the energy pyramid, we can also have pyramids of: Numbers Biomass

  36. Pyramid of Numbers A pyramid of numbers reflects the number of species at each trophic level. For example: if we look at a forest, there may be few rose bushes, but many insects that feed on the tree, with a pyramid like the one below.

  37. Pyramid of Biomass A pyramid of biomass reflects the total amount of living tissue at each trophic level. For example: Looking at the same forest, the biomass is great.