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Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1848-1854

Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1848-1854

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Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1848-1854

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  1. Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1848-1854 Chapter 18

  2. A. Popular Sovereignty Panacea • Allow people in individual territories to make decisions about slavery • Didn’t advocate all-out ban as free-soilers did • In line with democratic traditions • *Not good enough for abolitionists- slavery could spread

  3. B. Political Triumph for General Taylor • Election of 1848 • Whigs- General Zachary Taylor • Democrats- Lewis Cass • Free-Soil Party • Against slavery b/c of competition w/ white jobs • Taylor won- war hero who took no stance on slavery

  4. C. Californy Gold • 1848- Gold discovered in CA • Huge population increase • Lawlessness • 1849- asked for statehood- free state

  5. D. Sectional Balance & the Underground Railroad • CA, UT, & NM all potential free states • South worried about sectional balance • Underground railroad

  6. E. Twilight of the Senatorial Giants • CA’s application for statehood- possibility of secession in 1849

  7. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun • Clay- both North & South make concessions • Calhoun- give southern/slaveowning rights • Urged concessions to South • *most northerners didn’t want South to secede- would cost them too much money

  8. F. Deadlock & Danger on Capitol Hill • “Young Guard”- purify the union • William Seward- NY- no concession for South • President Taylor against concessions for South • He didn’t want states to have power • Seemed like Civil War could erupt in 1850

  9. G. Breaking the Congressional Logjam • Taylor died during debate- Millard Fillmore took over- more open to concessions for both sides

  10. 7 months of debate led to a series of compromises called Compromise of 1850 • Seemed to be accepted in North • Southern “fire-eaters” still against it • Cooler heads in South prevailed & south accepted compromise

  11. H. Balancing the Compromise Scales • The Compromise of 1850 • CA admitted as free state • UT & NM territories allowed to use popular sovereignty to determine slavery status • TX/NM border dispute settled- territory would go to NM, but TX compensated $10 mil. • Slave trade banned in DC • Tough fugitive slave law of 1850 enacted • Fines & jail terms for those helping slaves • Judges paid more to convict fugitives than to acquit them

  12. Comp of 1850 • “Omnibus” bill doesn’t pass • S. Douglas – engineers passage – how?

  13. H. Cont. • North clear winner • Fugitive slave law most important issue • Moderates to abolitionists • Underground Railroads operations increased • Personal liberty laws • North hated it, wouldn’t enforce it, South resented northerners for this • Compromise allowed north time to strengthen

  14. Webster’s 7th of March Speech • Supporting national unity

  15. The Case of Anthony Burns

  16. I. Defeat & doom for the whigs • Election of 1852 • Democrats- Franklin Pierce • Expansion, Compromise of 1850 • Whigs- Winfield Scott • Compromise of 1850 • Pierce won • End of Whigs • End of NATIONAL Parties (sectional)

  17. Pierce and His “Doughfaces” • Determined to enforced Fugitive Slave Act (Burns case)

  18. J. Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border • Fate of Central America • Trans-american canal? • Nicaragua- William Walker

  19. Cuba- Polk had tried to buy it • Tried twice to take it over 1850-1851 • Ostend Manifesto 1855 • Pierre Soule, James Buchanan, John Mason

  20. K. The Allure of Asia • Trade with China- July 3 1844

  21. 1852-1854- Pierce sent Commodore Matthew Perry to open trade with Japan • Meiji Restoration

  22. L. Pacific Railroad Promoters & the Gadsden Purchase • Desire for transcontinental railroad- Southern route • Made Gadsden Purchase- 1853 for $10 million

  23. M. Douglas’s Kansas Nebraska Scheme • Senator from Chicago- wanted a northern transcontinental Railroad route

  24. Proposed organizing northern territory so Railroad could run through it- Kansas in South, Nebraska in North • Slavery issue would be solved based on popular sov.

  25. Believed it wouldn’t be a big issue • KS would become slave, NB would become free • Contradicted MO comp. line • Southerners took bait, free-soilers against this

  26. N. Congress Legislates a Civil War • No way to avert civil war • Repealed MO Comp. • Drew up the passions of millions of Americans & would make future compromise impossible