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Immune System, Integumentary System, and Nervous System. Immune System Major Function-protection mechanism designed to defend you against millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites that would love to invade your body.
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Immune SystemMajor Function-protection mechanism designed to defend you against millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites that would love to invade your body. • Thymus - organ where lymphocytes made in the bone marrow turn mature into T-cells (a type of white blood cell). • White blood cells - known as leukocytes, protect the body against disease • Antibodies – specialized protein • Epidermis – outermost layer of cells in the skin • Cilia – hair-like structures along the edge of a structure (non-motile cilia) • Mucus - thick gelatinous fluid secreted or produced by various mucus cells that line the intestines, the nose, urinary and reproductive cells and other body organs. • Saliva - produced in and secreted from the three pairs of major salivary glands
Three Lines of Defense • The Innate Immune System – Seek and destroy! • The Adaptive Immune System – The guard dogs! • The Acquired or Specific Immune System – The big guns!
How Vaccinations Work • The vaccine is administered. It contains weakened or dead forms of the disease. • The immune system identifies these foreign substances (viruses and bacteria), also known as antigens. • Once antigens are identified, the immune system develops proteins that circulate in the blood. These proteins are called antibodies. They fight the infection by killing the antigens. Antibodies are made by white blood cells called lymphocytes. • The body stockpiles these antibodies so they are available to fight off the disease if exposed later on. Unfortunately, antibodies are disease-specific, so previously acquired chickenpox antibodies will be useless if faced with other diseases. • It's very important to note that when the actual disease infects a person, the antigens multiply thousands and thousands of times until a raging infection is under way. The vaccine provides just enough of these antigens for the body to recognize them and complete the immune response process, therefore protecting them from exposure to the disease in the future.
Short Videos Related to the Immune System • Mother to Child Immunity • Caloric Restriction • Importance of Flu Shots http://videos.howstuffworks.com/sciencentral/3183-mother-to-child-immunity-video.htm#mkcpgn=snag1
The integumentary system contains the largest organ in the human body, the skin. It is also comprised of such extensions of the skin as hair and fingernails. The skin, however, is the most important of these. The skin protects and the body's delicate organs. It also provides the body a physical barrier to keep out foreign materials and to prevent the body from drying out. The skin is made of three separate layers, each with its own particular function. The Epidermis – outermost layer where growth of skin takes placeThe Dermis – give skin elasticity and strengthThe Subcutaneous Layer - cushion
Nervous System Two Major Functions-1. Orders are sent from the brain to body organs and tissues along motor neurons.2. Information about the body's condition or the environment is sent to the brain along sensory neurons. This information is obtained using the 5 senses. • Brain – sends orders to organs and tissues along the neurons • Neurons- carries the orders from the brain, carries messages from the senses • Senses: Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste and Smell- Receives messages about the body’s condition or the environment and sends them to the brain
Brain • Structure: • Made of gray matter (40%) and white matter (60%) contained within the skull. Brain cells include neurons and glial cells. • The brain has three main parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem (medulla • Weight - approximately 3 pounds
How the Brain Communicates with the Body • The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is connected to the spinal cord, which runs from the neck to the hip area. The spinal cord carries nerve messages between the brain and the body. • The nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body are called the peripheral nervous system. • The autonomic nervous system controls our life support systems that we don't consciously control, like breathing, digesting food, blood circulation, etc.
Four Sections of the Brain’s Cerebrum Parietal Lobe Frontal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe
Additional Structures of the Brain • Cerebellum – • Balance, Posture • Brain Stem – • Motor and sensory pathway to body and face
Function of Each Part of the Cerebrum • Frontal Lobe - Behavior, Abstract thought processes, Problem solving, Attention, Creative thought, Some emotion, Intellect, Reflection, Judgment, Initiative, Inhibition, Coordination of movements, Generalized and mass movements, Some eye movements, Sense of smell, Muscle movements, Skilled movements, Some motor skills, Physical reaction, Libido (sexual urges) • Parietal Lobe – Sense of touch (tactile sensation), Appreciation of form through touch (stereo gnosis), Response to internal stimuli (proprioception), Sensory combination and comprehension, Some language and reading functions, Some visual functions • Occipital Lobe – Vision and Reading • Temporal Lobe – Auditory memories, Some hearing, Visual memories, Some vision pathways, Other memory, Music, Fear, Some language, Some speech, Some behavior and emotions, Sense of identity
The Nervous System - Nerves • Function of the nerves - provide a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons. (Below: axon) • Each nerve is a cordlike structure that contains many axons. These axons are often referred to as “fibers”. The axons are bundled together into groups and wrapped in connective tissue. (Right: Nerves Pictured in Yellow)
How Nerves Pass along messages • A nerve passes along information in the form of electrochemical impulses (known as nerve impulses or action potentials) carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve. These impulses are extremely fast(speeds up to 120 m/s). The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and then back to electrical. • Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: • Sensory nerves conduct sensory information from their receptors to the central nervous system, where the information is then processed. • Motor nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system to muscles.
Eye Sclera – white part of the eyeball (outer coat) Cornea - focuses light Pupil – an opening in the iris Lens – suspended with fibers which change its shape to focus as needed Iris – colorful part of eye that changes shape to control light Retina – changes the light received into nerve signals for the brain Optic nerve – carries messages from eye to brain Vitreous – 2/3 of the eye’s volume, jellylike
Ear The ear has external, middle, and inner portions. 1. Pinna –outer ear made of ridged cartilage covered by skin 2. External auditory canal – sound travels from the pinna here 3. Tympanic membrane - a short tube that ends at the eardrum; sound causes the eardrum and its tiny attached bones in the middle portion of the ear to vibrate, and the vibrations are conducted to the nearby cochlea. 4. Cochlea - spiral-shaped and part of the inner ear; transforms sound into nerve impulses that travel to the brain. 5. Semicircular canals (labyrinth) – filled with fluid and attached to the cochlea and nerves in the inner ear; send information on balance and head position to the brain. 6..Eustachian tube (auditory) - drains fluid from the middle ear into the throat (pharynx) behind the nose.
Short Video on the Brain and the Senses http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/flash/facts.html
Two Related Labs • Integument • The Five Senses
Hearing • http://www.mcello63.com/suonerie_varie/Locomotiva3.mp3 • http://soundmachine.gooddogie.com/sounds/mp3/baby_cries.mp3 • http://www.animal-sounds.org/farm/Dog%20growl%20animals048.wav • http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/ornithology/sounds/deju.wav • http://www.rkpuma.com/ov/11coaster.wav • http://www.lessonsense.com/games/sounds/04-monkey.wav • http://www.mediacollege.com/downloads/sound-effects/audience/applause-moderate-02.wav • http://www.lettersnstuff.com/sounds/nature/storm2.wav • http://www.shockwave-sound.com/sound-effects/wind-sounds/peak%20wind.wav