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Immune System, Endocrine System, & Nervous System

Immune System, Endocrine System, & Nervous System. 1.What is the function of the immune system?. Fight infection by making cells that inactivate foreign substances. 2.Briefly define these broad immune terms-disease, pathogen, and immunity.

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Immune System, Endocrine System, & Nervous System

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  1. Immune System, Endocrine System, & Nervous System

  2. 1.What is the function of the immune system? • Fight infection by making cells that inactivate foreign substances

  3. 2.Briefly define these broad immune terms-disease, pathogen, and immunity. • -Disease-a change that disrupts normal body functions (besides injury) • -Pathogen-disease-causing agent • -Immunity-ability to resist pathogens

  4. 3.What are the 5 NONSPECIFIC defenses against disease and briefly describe each? • -skin-1st line of defense and most important -Mucous membranes- 1st line of defense-traps pathogens to be sent out • -Inflammatory response-2nd line of defense-response to injury or infection=swelling, pain, & redness-increased number of WBC/phagocytes engulf pathogens • Fever -2nd line of defense that raises body temperature that kills off pathogens & speeds up WBC response • -Interferons-2nd line of defense proteins that block/resist viruses

  5. 4.What is the substance that cause the response and the 2 SPECIFIC defenses against the substance and briefly describe each? • - Antigens-substance that triggers immune response • - Lymphocytes-white blood cells (B and T cells) • -Plasma cells make Antibodies-proteins that recognize & bind to antigens

  6. 5.Briefly describe Humoral Immunity? • Uses B cells to prevent further infections

  7. 6.What are the 3 attack defenses for humoral immunity and briefly describe each? • -B cells-recognize antigens of pathogens • -Antibodies-bind and attack pathogens • -Memory B cells- fight pathogen faster in future

  8. 7.Briefly describe cell-mediated immunity? • Uses T cells and destroys cells that are already infected

  9. 8.Briefly describe the 3 cell-mediated immunity cells • -killer T cells-destroy body’s infected cells • -helper T cells make memory T cells for future infections • -suppressor T cells-turn off killer T cells

  10. 9.What is the correct order of healing? • Blood clot-scab-newly divided cell repair-scab sloughed

  11. 10.What is the function of the nervous system? • Coordinates and controls response to internal and external environment

  12. 11.What are the parts of the CNS? • Brain • Spinal Cord

  13. 12.What is the function of the CNS (Central Nervous System)? • Relays, processes and analyzes information

  14. 13.What is the PNS made up of? • Nerves/neurons

  15. 14.What is the function of the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)? • Relay information to and from the CNS

  16. 15.What are the 2 divisions of the PNS? Briefly describe each. • Somatic-Voluntary • Autonomic-Involuntary

  17. 16.What are the 2 divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System? Briefly describe their function. • Sympathetic-Fight or Flight-response to stress • Parasympathetic-homeostasis-normal conditions

  18. 17.What are the 5 parts of the brain outlined in class? Name at least 1 function for each • Cerebrum-voluntary act., senses, intelligence/learning, & judgment • Cerebellum-muscle coordination & balance • Brain Stem-relays info between brain & spinal cord, emotions, & homeostasis • Thalamus-gets messages from sensory neurons & distributes to cerebrum for analysis • Hypothalamus-hunger, thirst, fatigue, & body temperature

  19. 18.What is the reflex arc? • Rapid, involuntary muscle movement

  20. 19.What is bypassed in the reflex arc? • Brain

  21. 20.What part of the body does the left hemisphere control? Right? • Left brain controls right body side • Right brain controls left body side

  22. 21.What is the creative/artistic part of the brain? • Right hemisphere

  23. 22.What is the logical/analytical part of the brain? • Left hemisphere

  24. 23.What neuron carries sensory information from the body to the CNS? • Sensory neurons

  25. 24.What neuron carries information to the muscles/glands from the CNS? • Motor neurons

  26. 25.Who do interneurons relay information to? • Brain/spinal cord & to motor neurons

  27. 26.Who do interneurons get information from? • Brain/spinal cord & sensory neurons

  28. 27.What part of the nerve cell/neuron receives impulses? • Dendrites

  29. 28.What part of the nerve surrounds the nucleus? • Cell body

  30. 29.What part carries impulses away from the cell body? • Axon

  31. 30.What is the end of the neuron? • Axon terminal

  32. 31.What insulates the axon? • Myelin sheath

  33. 32.What is an electrochemical message? • Impulse

  34. 33.What is the space between neurons? • Synapse or synapse cleft

  35. 34.What chemicals transmit impulse in the synapse? • neurotransmitters

  36. 35.What does a receptor do? • Recognize & accept the neurotransmitters

  37. 36.What is the endocrine system function? • Transmit chemical messages to control growth, development & metabolism

  38. 37.What is the relationship of the gland and hormones? • Glands produce & release hormones

  39. 38.What are the 2 types of glands? Briefly describe. • Exocrine-secrete nonhormonal chemicals through ducts out of body (sweat,oil) • Endocrine-secretes hormones into the bloodstream

  40. 39.What are the 4 glands discussed in class? Briefly describe. • Pituitary gland (in brain)-regulates other glands • Thyroid (in neck)-regulates metabolism • Adrenal (above kidneys)-regulates epinephrine/adrenaline-response to stress • Pancreas-regulates glucose level (insulin)

  41. 40.Describe negative feedback mechanism. • Adjusts to changes inside & outside the body to maintain homeostasis

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