Six Minute Solution Diane Newman firstname.lastname@example.org
Goals To understand what fluency is and how it impacts reading. 2. To understand the rationale and research behind reading fluency and the Six Minute Solution program. 3. To understand and be able to use Six Minute Solution Program.
Agenda • What is Fluency? • Research and Rationale • Assessments • Selecting fluency partners and instructional groups • Introducing the fluency concept • Establishing partner behavior • Training students in the partnership model • Managing materials • Student progress and record keeping • Comprehension and writing strategies • Conclusion: more than six minutes a day
Reading: 5 Big Ideas Elementary • Alphabetic Principle • Phonemic Awareness • Vocabulary • Fluency • Comprehension
Reading: 5 Big Ideas Secondary • Word Study • Vocabulary • Fluency • Comprehension • Motivation
Automaticity is… • Performance of a skill without conscious thought • Necessary for proficiency • Improved through practice, perfect practice
Automaticity in Reading • Frees up cognitive space for comprehension and critical thinking • Leads to enjoyable reading
Fluency • Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension (National Institute for Literacy 2001) • Proficient readers are so automatic with each component skill (phonological awareness, decoding, vocabulary) that they focus their attention on constructing meaning from the print (Kahn and Stahl 2000)
Dysfluent Readers 1. Students who struggle with underlying skill deficits, such as decoding and word recognition. 2. Students who have adequate skills, but are slow at word and text reading.
Strategies for Fluency • Phrase-cued Reading • Alternate Oral Reading • Simultaneous Oral Reading • Reader’s Theatre • Choral Reading • Round Robin Reading • Repeated Readings
Rereading to Build Fluency • “Practice Makes Perfect” • Repeated Reading Research (Levy, Nichools,& Kroshen, 1993; Meyer & Felton, 1999; Samuels, 1979) • Six Minute Solution is based on repeated reading research • Research also supports students’ reading skills improve when they work with peers in structured reading activities
Decoding and Fluency • In order to read fluently the reader must be able to decode the vast majority of words automatically with approximately 95% accuracy • While fluency helps improve decoding it is not sufficient to remediate an underlying decoding problem
Independent Reading & Fluency • Students that are fluent generally find reading to be pleasurable and therefore read more • Reading more increases reading related skills, vocabulary, background knowledge, decoding, and fluency skills • The rich get richer and the poor get poorer, the “Matthew Effect”
In 10 minutes of independent reading… • A fluent reader might read 2,000 words • A struggling reader might read only 500 words Equal practice time, unequal practice
Work Completion & Fluency • Think of the amount of reading assigned in upper elementary, middle school, and high school • Both students are assigned the same amount of reading • The student who reads 180 wpm will complete their work in two hours while a student who reads 60 wpm will need six hours to complete the same text
Reading Achievement and Fluency Practice • We have the tools and knowledge to change the statistics! (44% of fourth graders were not fluent according to NAEP scores) • Fluency can be taught. • “Guided, repeated, oral reading procedures are appropriate and valuable avenues for increasing reading fluency and overall reading achievement.” (National Reading Panel 2000) • I do it, we do it, ya’ll do it, you do it.
So how are we supposed to help these kids? “Never, never think outside the Box !”
Primary: Step 1 - Assessments Assessment is critical in determining students’: • Knowledge of phonetic elements (6 Phonetic Elements Assessments: letter/sounds, CVC short, blends and digraphs, vowel combinations, CVC with distractors, “r” controlled vowels ) • Level of sight-word acquisition (Automatic Words Assessment) • Oral reading rate on a grade-level passage (Passage Assessments, AIMSweb or DIBELS fluency scores) • Instructional reading level (San Diego Quick)
Assessment: Phonetic ElementsWhat do you need • Approximately 2 - 5 min./student • Copies of a Student Copy of selected subtest Select the appropriate list based on your best estimate of student knowledge. Ex. A kindergarten teacher might select the Letters and Sounds subtest at beginning of school year; a first grade teacher may select the CVC Short Vowel Patterns subtest at the same point in the year • Teacher Record Sheet for each student being assessed • Highlighter or marking pen for the teacher
Primary Assessment: Phonetic Elements Assessment Procedure: • Give the student a Student Copy of selected subtest • Instruct the student to say the letter name, the letter sound, or the word depending on the subtest being administered • Follow along, track the correct responses as well as the errors allowing only three seconds per subtest item before marking it incorrect. You are assessing for automatic knowledge of phonemic elements, which is the goal of this program. • Continue administering the subtests until the student’s accuracy rate drops below 90% • Record their student’s individual instructional-level list number on the Class Record Sheet. Phonetic Elements Assessments in Primary book p. 68-86
Assessment: Automatic Words What do you need • Approximately 2.5 min./student • Two copies of a Student Copy of selected word list (select the appropriate list based on your best estimate of student knowledge) • Teacher Record Sheet for each student being assessed • Highlighter or marking pen for the teacher
Primary Assessment: Automatic Words by Ten Procedure: • Give the student a Student Copy of word list • Instruct the student to read the words quickly and carefully • Follow along, drawing a line through any word the student does not read correctly within three seconds, and record errors at the bottom of the word list(s). • When a student misses one word on any list, stop. This is the list number that the student should begin practicing. • Record their student’s individual instructional-level list number on the Class Record Sheet. This sheet will help form instructional groups. Handout p. 40 Automatic Assessment sheets in Primary book p. 87-95
Primary/Intermediate/Secondary Assessments Step 1: Fluency and Instructional Reading Level Assessment is critical in determining fluency partnerships and appropriate reading levels 1. Give each student a one minute timing on a grade level passage to determine oral fluency rate 2. Give each student a test to determine instructional reading level (91-96% accuracy) - San Diego Quick, silent reading test or a passage placement accuracy test Oral Fluency Assessment sheets in Intermediate book p. 59-64 and Secondary book p. 58-63 San Diego Quick Assessment sheets in Intermediate book p. 66-68 and Secondary book p. 65-67
Assessment 1: Fluency What do you need • Approximately 2.5 min./student • Two copies of a grade-level fluency assessment passage • Data sheet for the teacher to record correct wpm (oral fluency rate) • Timer, clipboard, marking pen
Errors Mispronunciations and dropped endings Omissions Out of sequence (count as two errors) Words supplied by teachers Substitutions with synonyms Repeated errors are counted each time Not Errors Mispronunciations or dropped endings due to dialect or speech problems Repetitions Insertions Self-corrections Guidelines for Counting WCPM • Count a word read correctly as correct. • Don't say the correct word after the student has said an incorrect word. • Wait three seconds before supplying a word to a student who is stuck.
Curriculum-Based Norms in Oral Reading Fluency *WCPM = Words Correct Per Minute Hasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G. A. (2006, April). Oral Reading Fluency Norms: A Valuable Assessment Tool for Reading Teachers. The Reading Teacher,59(7), 636–644.
Conducting a One-Minute TimingHandout p. 16 passageHandout p. 20 Hasbrouck & Tindal Chart Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment Record
Assessment 2: Instructional Reading LevelWhat do you need Approximately 2.5 min./student Materials to determine instructional reading level (passage placement accuracy test, word recognition test (San Diego Quick, group silent reading test) Data sheet for the teacher to record instructional reading level
Passage Placement Accuracy Test: What do you need Determining Reading Levels Chart(Using a 100-word passage)
Conduct an Instructional Reading Level TestSan Diego Quick AssessmentHandout p. 11-13 San Diego Quick AssessmentHandout p. 19 Initial Assessment Record
Step 2 - Selecting Fluency Partners • Partnering appropriately is essential to the success of the program • Match students as closely as possible by both oral fluency rates and instructional reading levels
Selecting Fluency Partners Materials: Fluency data for each student A student ranking sheet or computer spreadsheet program that generates ranking order Handout p. 19 Initial Assessment Record
Selecting Fluency Partners • Fluency rates should be within 10-15 words of each other – within 10 words at the primary level • Rank by fluency and by instructional reading level • 1 and 2, 3 and 4 would be partners, and so on
Initial Assessment RecordTeacher__Mrs. Newman_______________Class_____Reading Strategies__ Date March 2013_____
Selecting Instructional Grouping • Entire classrooms • Small groups • Individual fluency programs • Parent-student partnerships • Cross-age partnerships
Troubleshooting Partners • Absenteeism • Odd number of students • One child who is far below all the others in reading ability • Students who read less than 40 cwpm most likely need to increase sight vocabulary – automatic word lists (handout p. 38) • Noise Level
Step 3 - Introducing the Fluency Concept Set aside 30 minutes for lesson • Introduce the concept of fluency using activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book). • Select the Practice Passage for demonstration. Explain the practice passage and model reading fluency procedure. Rationale reduces resistance!
Introducing the Fluency Concept What is Reading Fluency? The ability to read text: • Accurately • Quickly • With expression
Introducing the Fluency Concept It is directly related to: • Reading comprehension • Independent reading • Work comprehension
Modeling the fluency procedure • Select practice passage for demonstration (match to lowest level of readability in the class) • Explain one minute timing • Demonstrate whisper reading and tracking with finger or pen, underline unknown words • Figure CWPM • Graph scores Explicitly model
Introducing the Fluency ConceptDemonstration – Teacher Models: • Track words with finger or pen • Underline unknown words • Timer sounds, draw bracket around last word read • Count the number of words • Count the number of unknown words • Find CWPM • Graph score Students whisper read two times while timed to compare scores.
Step 4 –Establishing Partner Behavior • Set aside 10 minutes • Instruct on appropriate fluency behavior • Providing appropriate corrective feedback • Noise level • No arguing rule • Use activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book) • You model partnership • Students practice partnership When working in partners, , #1 should be the stronger reader and read first. Students are not told this.
Step 5 - Training Students in the Partnership Procedure • Set aside 30 minutes for 3 days • Put students in any partnership • Model the fluency partnership using an overhead with a student • Model the procedure of marking errors and noting the stopping point • Model the error-correction procedure “You read__________(total # of ) words. I heard _______ (# of ) errors.” • Model how to calculate the cwpm and graph score • Use activity procedure or scripted procedure (in book)
Training Students in the Partnership Procedure Demonstration Handout p. 32-37, 41 Passages
Step 6 –Managing Materials Set aside 10 minutes Pocket Portfolio for each partnership • 2 copies of practice passage • Transparency • Fluency graphs • Zip lock bag • Dry erase marker • Eraser Monitoring Accountability
Step 7 – Student Progress and Record Keeping • Check for reading progress at the instructional level not at grade level • Check students Fluency Graphs for -Is adequate progress being made? -Do students have the appropriate passage? - Are the partnerships appropriate? - Is it an appropriate time to increase the difficulty level of the practice passage being used by partners?
Building Phonetic Elements Fluency Step 1: Presentation of New Phonetic Element • Model or teach new phonetic element or pattern. Hold up a card “This letter says___.” “What letters make up this element? ____” “What does this element say?___” “Say its sound with me.__” “Say it by yourselves.___” Step 2: Group Practice of New Phonetic Element Step 3: Independent Practice of the New Phonetic Element Step 4: Review Phonetic Elements Use the Phonetic Elements Fluency Building Sheets • Small group and partner practice Primary book Chapter 10 p. 55-58
Building Automatic Words Fluency Day 1: Introduce 5 of the set of 10 words. • Introduce each word by using a flash card “This word is___. What word? ____ Say the letters in this word with me. What do these letters spell? Say the word again with me.” • Practice new automatic words – magnetic letters, word walls, white boards, write in uppercase letters, lowercase letters, four corners of your white boards Day 2: Introduce the next 5 words. • Review yesterday’s 5 words. • Introduce new words using the same procedure as day 1. • Review of automatic words using flash cards, magnetic letters, memory game, mixing up letters to making the words again