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Chapter 19

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Chapter 19

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  1. Chapter 19 South Asia

  2. South Asia • Separated from Asia by the Himalayas in the North • Bigger than a peninsula and smaller than a continent– called a Subcontinent • Has strongest Monsoon winds in the world- due to Himalayas • India is the dominant country and major influence in the area • William Carey was the first modern missionary to the region- translated the Bible into many native languages

  3. I. India • Largest country in South Asia • Second largest in population in the world • Overtake China in 2050 • World’s largest democracy • Federal Republic, 25 states and 6 territories • Speak Hindi officially, but use English • Largest cities: Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata (formerly Calcutta)

  4. I. India • Major Geographic Features • Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea • Himalayas- highest mountain range on earth, included Mt. Everest- highest mountain in the world • Ganges River- one of world’s longest, most important river in India, supplies water for irrigation, significant in Hindu religion

  5. I. India • Major Geographic Features • Great Indian Desert- south of the Indus river • Deccan Plateau- heart of Indian peninsula, dry climate • Mumbai is located in the North- largest city • New Delhi is the capital • Disputed Border Regions • Mahatma Gandhi- tried to make peace with the Muslims in India, assassinated by a Hindu in 1948 • Kashmir- claimed by both India and Pakistan, in the East

  6. I. India • Religions • Hinduism- 80% of population • 2 of most sacred things: cattle and Ganges river • Castes, no upward mobility • Brahmins- highest class, priests and teachers • Vaisyas- middle class- merchants, skilled craftsmen and farmers • Untouchables- lowest level • Reincarnation- cycle of birth, death and rebirth- • ultimate goal: become part of Brahman- the world spirit • Karma- total affects of a person’s actions • Not one leader or one book- gurus attract followers based on their own teachings • Islam- second largest religion in India • Christianity- today about 2.3% of population professes some form of Christianity– many movements can be traced to William Carey • Sikhism- combine the teachings of Islam and Hinduism • Jainism- related to Buddhism and Hinduism, cannot be violent against any life form

  7. I. India • Government and Economy • British involvement- since the British East India company was established, the British had influence in India, after WWI granted India more representation in government and full independence in 1947 • Benefits- English language spread among the educated, railroad systems were put in place, strong administrative tradition • Growing economy despite poverty and natural disasters • Read Rupees and Rajas pg. 483

  8. II. Pakistan and Bangladesh • Used to be part of India until 1947 • Separated due to religious differences, split Muslim region from Hindu • Pakistan then split into East and West sections, then in 1971 East Pakistan became Bangladesh at India’s encouragement

  9. Pakistan • Physical Features- Indus River valley makes up most of the land, most people live along the river, rest of the area is part of the Great Indian Desert, many Afghan refugees crossed the Khyber Pass into Pakistan • 97% are Muslim • Government- officially a federal republic but in reality it is a military dictatorship

  10. Bangladesh • Natural Disasters- location makes typhoons and tsunamis a constant threat • Poor. Overpopulated. Ill-governed. Poorest country in the world. • Society- rely on donated food, medical care is scarce, most people rely on agriculture for livelihood but the destructive weather patterns often ruin crops • Government- corrupt and lazy officials in a Parliamentary Democracy • Economy- is growing slowly, produces Jute

  11. IV. Nepal • Physical Features • Has 8 of the world’s 10 highest peaks • Home to Mt. Everest • Very prone to natural disasters • Society- people are a mix of Tibetan and Indian, most widely spoken language: Nepali • Only official Hindu state in the world • Sherpas- famous as guides • Government and Economy: constitutional monarchy, very poor economy- 80% of people work in agriculture • Capital: Kathmandu

  12. V. Bhutan • Physical Features- climate ranges from severe cold to tropical due to the Himalayas • Name means “Land of the Thunder Dragon” • Society- mainly a Buddhist society, very few women receive an education • Government and Economy: • very closely linked to India • ruled by a king who promises to move towards democracy • no diplomatic relations with the US

  13. VI. Sri Lanka • Physical Features- lies 20 miles off the coast of India • Climate is tropical, monsoons are common, rain forests are the natural vegetation • Hit by tsunami in 2004, left 31,000 dead, 6,300 missing, and 443,000 homeless • Society- conflict between Sinhalese (Buddhist) and Tamils (Hindu) have been going on for decades • Government and Economy- republican form of government • Tea is major export, very famous commodity • Capital: Colombo

  14. VII. Maldives • Physical Features • Smallest nation in Asia • 1,190 coral islands- 200 are inhabited, 80 are tourist destinations • Highest point- only about 8 feet of elevation • Society • Amazingly literate compared to nearby nations, 99% literate, education is not mandatory • Government and Economy- influenced by Dutch and then British, • government follows secular Muslim law • one president since 1978 • Economy dominated by fishing and tourism • Capital: Male (mahlee)