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Consensus-Based Distributed Least-Mean Square Algorithm Using Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. Gonzalo Mateos, Ioannis Schizas and Georgios B. Giannakis ECE Department, University of Minnesota Acknowledgment: ARL/CTA grant no. DAAD19-01-2-0011. Motivation.

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## Consensus-Based Distributed Least-Mean Square Algorithm Using Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

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**Consensus-Based Distributed Least-Mean Square Algorithm**Using Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Gonzalo Mateos, Ioannis Schizas and Georgios B. Giannakis ECE Department, University of Minnesota Acknowledgment: ARL/CTA grant no. DAAD19-01-2-0011**Motivation**• Estimation using ad hoc WSNs raises exciting challenges • Communication constraints • Limited power budget • Lack of hierarchy / decentralized processing Consensus • Unique features • Environment is constantly changing (e.g., WSN topology) • Lack of statistical information at sensor-level • Bottom line: algorithms are required to be • Resource efficient • Simple and flexible • Adaptive and robust to changes Single-hop communications**Prior Works**• Single-shot distributed estimation algorithms • Consensus averaging [Xiao-Boyd ’05, Tsitsiklis-Bertsekas ’86, ’97] • Incremental strategies [Rabbat-Nowak etal ’05] • Deterministic and random parameter estimation [Schizas etal ’06] • Consensus-based Kalman tracking using ad hoc WSNs • MSE optimal filtering and smoothing [Schizas etal ’07] • Suboptimal approaches [Olfati-Saber ’05],[Spanos etal ’05] • Distributed adaptive estimation and filtering • LMS and RLS learning rules [Lopes-Sayed ’06 ’07]**Problem Statement**• Ad hoc WSN with sensors • Single-hop communications only. Sensor ‘s neighborhood • Connectivity information captured in • Zero-mean additive (e.g., Rx, quantization) noise • Each sensor , at time instant • Acquires a regressor and scalar observation • Both zero-mean w.l.o.g and spatially uncorrelated • Least-mean squares (LMS) estimation problem of interest**Centralized Approaches**• If , jointly stationary Wiener solution • If global (cross-) covariance matrices , available Steepest-descent converges avoiding matrix inversion • If (cross-) covariance info. not available or time-varying Low complexity suggests (C-) LMS adaptation Goal:develop a distributed (D-) LMS algorithm for ad hoc WSNs**Proposition [Schizas etal’06]: For satisfying 1)-2) and**the WSN is connected, then A Useful Reformulation • Introduce the bridge sensor subset • For all sensors , such that • For , there must such that • Consider the convex, constrained optimization**Algorithm Construction**• Problem of interest • Two key steps in deriving D-LMS • Resort to the alternating-direction method of multipliers Gain desired degree of parallelization • Apply stochastic approximation ideas Cope with unavailability of statistical information**Step 1:**Step 2: Step 3: Derivation of Recursions • Associated augmented Lagrangian • Alternating-direction method of Lagrange multipliers Three-step iterative update process Multipliers Dual iteration Local estimates Minimize w.r.t. Bridge variables Minimize w.r.t.**Multiplier Updates**• Recall the constraints • Use standard method of multipliers type of update • Requires from the bridge neighborhood**Local Estimate Updates**• Given by the local optimization • First order optimality condition • Proposed recursion inspired by Robbins-Monro algorithm • is the local prior error • is a constant step-size • Requires • Already acquired bridge variables • Updated local multipliers**Bridge Variable Updates**• Similarly, • Requires • from the neighborhood • from the neighborhood in a startup phase**Steps 1,2:**Step 3: Tx to Bridge sensor Sensor Tx Rx Rx from to from D-LMS Recap and Operation • In the presence of communication noise, for • Simple, fully distributed, only single-hop exchanges needed Step 1: Step 2: Step 3:**Further Insights**• Manipulating the recursions for and yields • Introduce the instantaneous consensus error at sensor • The update of becomes • Superposition of two learning mechanisms • Purely local LMS-type of adaptation • PI consesus loop tracks the consensus set-point**Sensor j**Local LMS Algorithm Consensus Loop To PI Regulator D-LMS Processor • Network-wide information enters through the set-point • Expect increased performance with Flexibility**Mean Analysis**• Independence setting signal assumptions for (As1) is a zero-mean white random vector , with spectral radius (As2) Observations obey a linear model where is a zero-mean white noise (As3) and are statistically independent • Define and Goal:derive sufficient conditions under which**Dynamics of the Mean**Lemma:Under (As1)-(As3), consider the D-LMS algorithm initialized with . Then for , is given by the second-order recursion with and , where • Equivalent first-order system by state concatenation**First-Order Stability Result**Proposition:Under (As1)-(As3), the D-LMS algorithm whose positive step-sizes and relevant parameters are chosen such that , achieves consensus in the mean sense i.e., • Step-size selection based on local information only • Local regressor statistics • Bridge neighborhood size**Simulations**True time-varying weight: node WSN, Regressors: i.i.d. Observations: D-LMS: ,**Loop Tuning**• Adequately selecting actually does make a difference • Compared figures of merit: • MSE (Learning curve): • MSD (Normalized estimation error):**Concluding Summary**• Developed a distributed LMS algorithm for general ad hoc WSNs • Intuitive sensor-level processing • Local LMS adaptation • Tunable PI loop driving local estimate to consensus • Mean analysis under independence assumptions step-size selection rules based on local information • Simulations validate mss convergence and tracking capabilities • Ongoing research • Stability and performance analysis under general settings • Optimality: selection of bridge sensors, • D-RLS. Estimation/Learning performance Vs complexity tradeoff

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