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  2. HIV HIV causes AIDS. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It breaks down the immune system — our body's protection against disease. HIV causes people to become sick with infections that normally wouldn't affect them. AIDS is short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of HIV disease.

  3. Meaning AIDS is the acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A= Acquired: The condition occurs after birth and is not passed on genetically I= Immune: The body’s immune system D= Deficiency: A lack, degeneration, decline S=Syndrome: Group of Symptoms AIDS means having a group of symptoms acquired from a deficiency in the body’s immune system

  4. History of HIV/AIDS Till 1970- early 1980: It was uncommon 1981: Discovered in US Then it spreads to Africa and other countries In US & Europe, the disease was first seen among men who had sex with other men

  5. Causes of AIDS AIDS is caused by a virus known as HIV Once HIV enters the body, it lives and grows in the blood cells and body fluids of the infected persons It infects the white blood cells

  6. Symptoms Some people develop HIV symptoms shortly after being infected. But it usually takes more than 10 years. There are several stages of HIV disease. The first HIV symptoms may include swollen glands in the throat, armpit, or groin. Other early HIV symptoms include slight fever, headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches. These symptoms may last for only a few weeks. Then there are usually no HIV symptoms for many years. That is why it can be hard to know if you have HIV.

  7. AIDS symptoms appear in the most advanced stage of HIV disease. In addition to a badly damaged immune system, a person with AIDS may also have thrush — a thick, whitish coating of the tongue or mouth that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat periods of extreme and unexplained tiredness that may be combined with headaches, light headedness, and/or dizziness quick loss of more than 10 pounds of weight that is not due to increased physical exercise or dieting

  8. unexplained bleeding from growths on the skin, from the mouth, nose, anus, or vagina, or from any opening in the body frequent or unusual skin rashes severe numbness or pain in the hands or feet, the loss of muscle control and reflex, paralysis, or loss of muscular strength confusion, personality change, or decreased mental abilities

  9. How HIV spreads HIV is transmitted in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common ways HIV is spread are by Having vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom with someone who has HIV/AIDS Sharing needles or syringes with someone who has HIV/AIDS Being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with HIV Getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores

  10. Prevention The surest way is to abstain from sexual intercourse and from sharing needles Many people have been infected with HIV by sharing needles. If you are using needles for steroids, hormones, or other drugs Don't share personal items that may have blood on them. This includes toothbrushes, razors, needles for piercing or tattooing, and blades for cutting or scarring.

  11. If you choose to have sex, have safer sex to reduce the risk of exchanging blood, semen, or vaginal fluids with your sex partner(s).

  12. Impact on Individual and Families The psychological burden and stress affect their overall mental health, and depression is common among parents and caregivers as they struggle with financial limitations  Social Stigma HIV can also have an effect on relationships between family members.

  13. Chronic illness in the parent can change family roles causing anger or guilt. Family members can become isolated. The ability of HIV-positive parents and caregivers to care for their children is also impaired

  14. HIV/AIDS can also affect children’s normal childhood. Children from families living with HIV/AIDS often have to deal with psychosocial stress, an ill caregiver, reduced parenting capacity, a shift in family structure, financial deprivation, and stigma and discrimination. These challenges can lead to emotional and behavioral changes in children, such as depression and delinquency.

  15. HIV/AIDS and Women Source of Infection Lack of Control over husband Poor access to health care facilities Blame Isolation and Stigma Delay in diagnosis

  16. Rights of the PLHA Response to Discrimination at workplace Response to discrimination in education Response to maintaining confidentiality