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Literary Elements Review

Literary Elements Review

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Literary Elements Review

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  1. Literary Elements Review

  2. Literary Elements • Setting • Plot (including climax) • Conflict • Characterization • Theme • Point of view

  3. Setting Tells the reader where and when the story takes place.

  4. Plot A series of events through which the writer reveals what is happening, to whom, and why.

  5. Plot Structure The turning point. The most intense moment (either mentally or in action). Climax All of the action which follows the climax. Rising Action The series of conflicts in the story that lead to the climax. Falling Action The start of the story.The way things are before the actionstarts. Resolution/Denouement The conclusion, the tying together of all threads. The lesson and what happened as a result of the lesson learned. Exposition

  6. Plot: Conflict Conflict is the problem in the story that needs to be resolved. Without conflict, there is no plot.

  7. Character vs Character Character vs Nature Character vs Society Character vs Self Plot: Types of Conflict

  8. Plot: Character vs. Character Conflict This type of conflict finds the main character in conflict with another character, human or not human. “The new one is the most beautiful of all; he is so young and pretty.” And the old swans bowed their heads before him. Then he felt quite ashamed, and hid his head under his wing; for he did not know what to do, he was so happy, and yet not at all proud. He had been persecuted and despised for his ugliness, and now he heard them say he was the most beautiful of all the birds. The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Anderson

  9. Plot: Character vs. Nature Conflict This type of conflict finds the main character in conflict with the forces of nature, which serve as the antagonist. It´s a Truffula Seed. It´s the last one of all! You´re in charge of the last of the Truffula Seeds. And Truffula Trees are what everyone needs. Plant a new Truffula. Treat it with care. Give it clean water. And feed it fresh air. Grow a forest. Protect it from axes that hack. Then the Lorax and all of his friends may come back. The Lorax by Dr. Seuss

  10. Plot: Character vs. Society Conflict This type of conflict has the main character in conflict with a larger group: a community, society, culture, etc. “I’m tired of living in a hole,” said Jenny. “Let’s fight for freedom!” cried Bouncer. “We’ll be soldiers! Rough-riding Rowdies! I’ll be the general and commander-in-chief!” The Island of the Skog by Steven Kellogg

  11. Plot: Character vs. Self Conflict In this type of conflict, the main character experiences some kind of inner conflict. Finally, Sam’s father said, “Go to bed now. But before you go to sleep, Sam, tell yourself the difference between REAL and MOONSHINE.” Sam, Bangs & Moonshine by Evaline Ness

  12. Theme The story’s main ideas. The “message” the writer intends to communicate by telling the story.

  13. Climax When the action comes to its highest point of conflict.

  14. Resolution The story’s action after the climax until the end of the story. The “conclusion” of the story.

  15. Characterization The process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.

  16. Ways writers reveal a character: • By telling us directly what the character is like: humble, ambitious, impetuous, easily manipulated, and so on • By describing how the character looks and dresses • By letting us hear the character speak

  17. Ways writers reveal a character: • By revealing the character’s private thoughts and feelings • By revealing the character’s effect on other people—showing how other characters feel or behave toward the character • By showing the character’s actions

  18. Two methods of revealing character: 1. Direct characterization – The writer tells us directly what the character’s personality is like. 2. Indirect characterization – • The reader has to use their own judgment and put clues together to figure out what the character is like. • You can develop your characters by showing the reader what they are like. Describing how characters look, act, think, and speak. • We do this in real life when we are getting to know someone.

  19. Showing the reader is far more effective! Original sentence: His mom was really mad. Revised writing showing character through how she looks, acts, thinks, and speaks: As her face slowly began to turn bright red, he noticed her taking a deep breath and sucking in her cheeks. Her large brown eyes narrowed into slits, and a hundred new wrinkles appeared on her forehead as her eyebrows scrunched together in a frown. His mom’s long black hair started to shake from side to side as she raised an accusing finger in his direction.

  20. Point of View The position of the narrator of the story and what the writer sees from that vantage point.

  21. First-person narration • The narrator is a character in the story. • The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character and speaks directly to the reader, who know only information of which this character is aware. • The narrator uses the first-person pronouns, I, me, and my.

  22. First-person narration example I took the subway to Clancy Street, found a spot in front of Park View Apartments and started to play my sax. I was hoping to attract an audience and, if I was lucky, earn some money. The morning started out great. This girl opened her window and applauded madly. Later, I had a duet with this big howling dog—what a riot! I had to move on, however, when a guy slammed the window shut and called police—not a music lover. He said I was disturbing the peace. Give me a break.

  23. Third-person • The narrator does not participate in the action of the story. • The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character; the reader knows only information of which this character is aware. • The narrator uses third-person pronouns like he, she, and they.

  24. Third-person narration example The man couldn’t take any more. It was noon, but he had just fallen asleep, because he had worked the night shift. He had trouble getting to sleep because he was worried—he had just lost his job at the warehouse. And why was he fired? Because he fell asleep on the job. And why had he been so sleepy? Because a barking dog had kept him awake the day before. And here it was again, a barking, howling dog right outside his window! And some beggar playing a horn besides. The man picked up his phone and dialed 911.

  25. Third-person limited • The narrator does not participate in the action of the story. • The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character; the reader knows only information of which this character is aware. • The narrator uses third-person pronouns like he, she, and they.

  26. Third-person limited narration example The man couldn’t take any more. It was noon, but he had just fallen asleep, because he had worked the night shift. He had trouble getting to sleep because he was worried—he had just lost his job at the warehouse. And why was he fired? Because he fell asleep on the job. And why had he been so sleepy? Because a barking dog had kept him awake the day before. And here it was again, a barking, howling dog right outside his window! And some beggar playing a horn besides. The man picked up his phone and dialed 911.

  27. Third-Person Omniscient • The narrator does not participate in the action of the story. • The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters; the reader gets insight into several characters and learns any information of which they are aware. • The narrator uses third-person pronouns like he, she, and they. 

  28. Third-person omniscient example One sunny day, a young woman looked down from her apartment window and saw a young man playing a saxophone. “Cool,” she thought as she swayed in time with his tune. Shortly, a large brown dog sauntered up, sat in front of the musician, and howled along with the music. Then a man in his pajamas yelled from another window. He said that the noise woke him up and he was going to call the police. This man worked the night shift and had to sleep all day and liked cats better than dogs anyway. The young saxophonist left. Soon the young woman appeared in the street and hurried off in the direction taken by the departing horn player. In a year’s time, the young woman married the talented saxophonist, he had a hit CD, and they adopted a large brown dog.