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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 10 Dr. Stuart Sumida PowerPoint Presentation
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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 10 Dr. Stuart Sumida

Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 10 Dr. Stuart Sumida

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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 10 Dr. Stuart Sumida

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  1. Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 10 Dr. Stuart Sumida PHYLUM CHORDATA Subphylum VERTEBRATA FISHES

  2. So, then what’s a vertebrate…?

  3. Phylogenetic Context for Vertebrata: Vertebrates are chordates Echinodermata Hemichordata Urochordata Cephalochordata Vertebrata Chordata

  4. All vertebrates possess an embryological material known as NEURAL CREST. Neural crest gives rise to particular structures found in all vertebrates, and only in vertebrates.

  5. Phylogenetic Context for Vertebrata Echinodermata Hemichordata Urochordata Cephalochordata Vertebrata (Posess neural crest and its derivatives)

  6. EVERYONE will be able to demonstrate a cross-sectional view of a vertebrate…

  7. Remember the basic chordate features: • Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord • Notochord • Pharyngeal Gill Slits • Post Anal Tail

  8. So what exactly is a fish…?

  9. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  10. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii THE ORIGINAL CONDITION OF VEWRTEBRATES WAS WITHOUT JAWS Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  11. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  12. CONDONTS: Originally thought not to be vertebrates, but their best known components made of same material as teeth and bones (probably from neural crest material)

  13. CONDONTS: Originally thought not to be vertebrates, but their best known components made of same material as teeth and bones (probably from neural crest material)

  14. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  15. PLACODERMI • Closest relatives of living cartilagenous fishes • Known since Devonian • Big cutting jaw plates, but not true teeth

  16. PLACODERMI: Closest relatives of living cartilagenous fishes; Known since Devonian; Big cutting jaw plates, but not true teeth

  17. Dave Dunkle and Dunkleosteous

  18. Bothriolepis

  19. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  20. CHONDRICHTHYES: The Cartilagenous Fishes Includes: sharks, skates and rays, holocephalians

  21. Iniopterygians

  22. Helicoprion

  23. A Chimera (a holocephalian)

  24. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  25. ACANTHODII • Acanthodians are often referred to as “spiny sharks” – but not real sharks. • Know as far back as Silurian • Abundant until Early Permian

  26. Howittacanthus – an acanthodian

  27. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  28. OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH) • Most diverse groups of vertebrates • Enormous diversity of sizes, shapes, habitats. • Includes: • Actinopterygii • Sarcopterygii • (Both groups known as far back as early Devonian)

  29. Garibaldi: The California State Marine Fish

  30. Jawless fish Conodonts Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Gnathostomata Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

  31. SARCOPTERYGII – THE LOBE-FINNED FISHES • Includes • Dipnoi (lungfishes) • Crossopterygii • Crossopterygians include “tetrapods” – 4-legged land-dwelling vertebrates.

  32. A lungfish

  33. Eusthenopteron

  34. Tiktaalik roseae – a lobe-finned fish intermediate between typical sarcopterygians and basal tetrapods. Mid to Late Devonian; 375 million years old.

  35. The back end of Tiktaalik’s skull is intermediate between fishes and tetrapods.