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ABT WORK

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ABT WORK

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  1. ABT WORK SOUTHERN REGION EXPERIENCE IIT MADRAS 27th Dec. 2004

  2. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW • SOUTHERN REGIONAL GRID – QUICK FACTS • SR GRID OPERATION – TYPICAL ISSUES IN PAST • ABT – THE COMMERCIAL MECHANISEM • SR GRID OPERATION – AFTERMATH ABT • UNSCHEDULED INTERCHANGE – THE NEW Avatar • ISSUES OF INTEREST – FURTHER REFINEMENTS

  3. SOUTHERN REGIONAL GRIDQUICK FACTS

  4. REGIONAL GRIDS INSTALLED CAPACITY NORTHERN :- 31,230 MW EASTERN :- 17,697 MW SOUTHERN :- 31,931 MW WESTERN :- 32,354 MW NORTH-EASTERN :- 2,357 MW TOTAL 115,569 MW NORTHERN REGION NORTH-EASTERN REGION EASTERN REGION WESTERNREGION SOUTHERN REGION

  5. ‘ ELECTRICAL’ REGIONS 1 NORTHERN REGION NORTH-EASTERN REGION EASTERN REGION 2 WESTERNREGION 3 SOUTHERN REGION SAME FREQUENCY FROM GUJARAT TO ARUNACHAL PRADESH WITH EFFECT FROM MARCH 2003 ABOUT 2800 KMS! APART

  6. ‘ELECTRICAL’ REGIONS NORTHERN REGION 1 NORTH-EASTERN REGION EASTERN REGION WESTERNREGION 2 SOUTHERN REGION WITH THE COMMISSIONING OF THE TALA PROJECT CONNECTING THE EASTERN AND NORTHERN GRIDS, INDIA WILL HAVE ONLY TWO GRIDS

  7. ANDHRA PRADESH KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU KERALA SOUTHERN REGION – GEOGRAPHY POPULATION :- 22.5 CRORES ( 22% OF INDIA) AREA :- 651 (‘000 SQ KM)(19% OF INDIA) INSTALLED CAPACITY:- 31,931 MW(27.6%) WEATHER :- South-west monsoon North-east monsoon SEA COAST :- AROUND 4000 KM

  8. SR STATES – POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS KARNATAKA INSTALLED CAPACITY – 5802 MW MAX DEMAND MET – 5445 MW DAILY CONSUMPTION MAX – 107 MU DAILY CONSUMPTION AVG – 84 MU CONSUMER PROFILE – DOM INDU AGRI COMML OTHERS 37% 26% 33% 3% 1% . ANDHRA PRADESH INSTALLED CAPACITY – 9531 MW MAX DEMAND MET – 7441 MW DAILY CONSUMPTION MAX – 166 MU DAILY CONSUMPTION AVG – 130 MU CONSUMER PROFILE – DOM INDU AGRI COMML OTHERS 22% 29% 34% 5% 10% . TAMIL NADU INSTALLED CAPACITY – 7074 MW MAX DEMAND MET – 7228 MW DAILY CONSUMPTION MAX – 147 MU DAILY CONSUMPTION AVG – 126 MU CONSUMER PROFILE – DOM INDU AGRI COMML OTHERS 21% 33% 27% 9% 10% . KERALA INSTALLED CAPACITY – 2617 MW MAX DEMAND MET – 2426 MW DAILY CONSUMPTION MAX – 39 MU DAILY CONSUMPTION AVG – 34 MU CONSUMER PROFILE – DOM INDU AGRI COMML 76% 2% 6% 16%.

  9. GROWTH OF INSTALLED CAPACITY OF SR IN MW Average Growth ~ 5 %

  10. INSTALLED CAPACITY IN SR NOTE:- --- TAMILNADU HAS ABOUT 1344 MW OF WINDMILL POWER WHICH IS NOT INCLUDED IN THE INSTALLED CAPACITY. --- LIKEWISE MICRO AND CAPTIVE CAPACITIES ARE NOT INCLUDED

  11. SOURCE-WISE INSTALLED CAPACITY OF SR IN MW NUCLEAR OTHERS WIND HYDRO GAS THERMAL 31,931 MW

  12. AGENCY-WISE INSTALLED CAPACITY OF SR 31,931 MW IN MW IPP ANDHRA PRADESH CENTRAL SECTOR KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU KERALA

  13. TYPICAL LOAD CURVE OF SR EVENING PEAK SUMMER WINTER MONSOON WEATHER RESERVOIR CONSUMPTION

  14. LOAD COMPOSITION IN SOUTHERN GRID Domestic Others Industry Commercial Agriculture

  15. TYPICAL LOAD SPREAD IN SR LOAD 500-1200 MW LOAD 200-500 MW

  16. SR GRID - HIGHLIGHTS • WIDE SPREAD TRANSMISSION NETWORK • HIGHEST CAPACITY HVDC LINK IN COUNTRY • GENERATING UNITS OF VARIED TYPE & CAPACITY • 32 Nos. of 400 KV SUB-STATIONS • 17600 MVA TRANSFORMATION CAPACITY • INTER-REGIONAL LINKS WITH ALL NEIGHBOURING REGIONS

  17. SR GRID OPERATIONTYPICAL ISSUES IN THE PAST

  18. "If a path to the better there be, it begins with a full look at the worst."-- Thomas Hardy

  19. SR GRID OPERATION – TYPICAL ISSUES IN PAST • LOW FREQUENCY PROBLEMS • FREQUENCY EXCURSES TO LOW VALUES • LOW VOLTAGE OPERATION • VOLTAGE AT EHV GRID LEVEL DIPPES TO CRITICALL LOW LEVELS • SYSTEM BROWNOUTS / BLACK OUTS • LOADS FREQUENTLY CUT OFF DUE TO RELAY OPERATION • INCREASED ELECTRICAL LOSSES • INEFFICIENT OPERATION OF ELECTRIC EQUIPMENTS ...THE END RESULT :

  20. AVAILABILITY BASED TARIFFCOMMERCIAL MECHANISEM

  21. PROBLEMS IN THE PAST - AN INSIGHT • THE ‘LOGIC OF THE COMMONS’ WORKS AS LONG AS ‘THE COMMONS’ ARE VAST AND HAVE UNLIMITED RESOURCE • THE ‘LOGIC OF THE COMMONS’ BREAKS DOWN WHEN RESOURCES PER USER GETS CONSTRAINED • GAME THEORY ON THE OTHER HAND GIVES A VALUABLE INSIGHT INTO THE ‘PLAYERS’ IN THE COMMONS • EVERY ‘PLAYER’ TRIES TO MAXIMISE HIS OWN PAYOFFS • CONSEQUENTLY THE ‘COMMONS’ GETS DENUDED RAPIDLY • WE END UP WITH ‘THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS’ SCENARIO • KNEE-JERK REGULATORY ACTIONS FOLLOW – MORE HARMFUL THAN SALUTARY • AN ASTONISHING PARALLEL CAN BE FOUND IN THE ‘ELECTRIC GRID’ AND ITS EQUILIBRIUM SCALAR-‘FREQUENCY’

  22. BEHAVIOUR IN AN INTER-CONNECTED SYSTEM • THE INTER CONNECTED OPERATION IS A PRECARIOUS ENTERPRISE, RARELY PERFECT, OFTEN FRAGILE AND SOMETIMES YOU WONDER IF IT IS WORTH THE EXPERIENCE • A PRUDENT CONSTITUENT SHOULD TAKE ACTION IMAGINING THAT HE IS ISLANDED – THEN THE GRID WILL COME TO HIS RESCUE

  23. HOW DID ABT ADDRESS THE‘CURSE OF THE COMMONS’? • ABT DIS-INCENTIVISED GREED • ABT RE-DEFINED HOW THE STAKEHOLDERS INTERACT WITH THE COMMONS • THE USERS OF THE COMMONS COULD BENEFIT FROM ‘TAKING’ AS WELL AS ‘GIVING’ TO THE COMMONS • ABT OBVIATES THE NEED FOR ELABORATE REGULATORY MEASURES

  24. ABT AND THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM

  25. Basic Ideas of Game Theory • GAME THEORY IS THE GENERAL THEORY OF STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR  GENERALLY DEPICTED IN MATHEMATICAL FORM.  PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN MODERN ECONOMICS.

  26. Rules, Strategies, Payoffs, and Equilibrium ECONOMIC SITUATIONS ARE TREATED AS GAMES •  THE RULES OF THE GAME STATE WHO CAN DO WHAT AND WHEN • A PLAYER'S STRATEGY IS A PLAN FOR ACTIONS IN EACH POSSIBLE SITUATION IN THE GAME.

  27. Rules, Strategies, Payoffs, and Equilibrium ECONOMIC SITUATIONS ARE TREATED AS GAMES A PLAYER'S PAYOFF IS THE AMOUNT THAT THE PLAYER WINS OR LOSES IN A PARTICULAR SITUATION IN A GAME A PLAYERS HAS A DOMINANT STRATEGY IF THAT PLAYER'S BEST STRATEGY DOES NOT DEPEND ON WHAT OTHER PLAYERS DO

  28. Nash Equilibrium OCCURS WHEN EACH PLAYER'S STRATEGY IS OPTIMAL, GIVEN THE STRATEGIES OF THE OTHER PLAYERS  A PLAYER'S BEST RESPONSE (OR BEST STRATEGY) IS THE STRATEGY THAT MAXIMIZES THAT PLAYER'S PAYOFF, GIVEN THE STRATEGIES OF OTHER PLAYERS  A NASH EQUILIBRIUM IS A SITUATION IN WHICH EACH PLAYER MAKES HIS OR HER BEST RESPONSE

  29. LONG TERM LOAD FORECAST FUND MOBILISATION POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENTS CAPACITY COMMITTMENT SHORT TERM LOAD FORECAST DAY-AHEAD SCHEDULING REAL-TIME SPOT/BALANCING MARKET REAL TIME 15 MT BLOCKS 10-5 YEARS 1-5 YEARS WEEK TO DAY AHEAD THE INDIA ELECTRICITY MARKETTIME LINE

  30. Components of inter-utility tariff(Pre – ABT Mechanism) • Fixed charges • Interest on loans • Depreciation • O & M charges • Return on equity • Interest on Working Capital • Energy charges (fuel cost) • Incentives • Surcharge & other levies • No charge for reactive energy

  31. Payment to Inter State Generating Stations (ISGS) from beneficiaries underAvailability Based Tariff (ABT) • Capacity charges • Energy charges • Unscheduled Interchange (UI)

  32. CAPACITY CHARGE Capacity charge will be related to ‘availability’ of the generating station and the percentage capacity allocated to the state. ‘Availability’ for this purpose means the readiness of the generating station to deliver ex-bus output expressed as a percentage of its rated ex-bus output capability.

  33. ENERGY CHARGE Energy charges shall be worked out on the basis of a paise per kwh rate on ex-bus energy scheduled to be sent out from the generating station as per the following formula Energy charges = Rate of energy charges (paise/kwh) x ScheduledGeneration (ex-bus MWh)

  34. UNSCHEDULED INTERCHANGE (U I) : • Variation in actual generation / drawal with respect to scheduled generation / drawal shall be accounted for through Unscheduled Interchange (UI). • UI for generating station shall be equal to its total actual generation minus its scheduled generation. • UI for beneficiary shall be equal to its total actual drawal minus its total scheduled drawal.

  35. UNSCHEDULED INTERCHANGE (U I) : • UI shall be worked out for each 15 minute time block. • Charges for all UI transactions shall be based on average frequency of the time block. • UI rates shall be frequency dependent and uniform throughout the country.

  36. UI RATE Rate of Unscheduled Drawal/Injection

  37. AVAILABILITY BASED TARIFF CAPACITY CHARGE ENERGY CHARGE ADJUSTMENT FOR DEVIATIONS (U I CHARGE) (A) = a function of the Ex-Bus MW availability of Power Plant for the day declared before the day starts x SEB’s % allocation from the plant (B) = MWh for the day as per Ex-Bus drawal schedule for the SEB finalised before the day starts x Energy charge rate (C) = Σ (Actual energy interchange in a 15 minute time block – scheduled energy interchange for the time block) x UI rate for the time block TOTAL PAYMENT FOR THE DAY = (A) + (B) ± (C)

  38. FEATURES : • (A) and (B) do not depend on actual plant generation / drawal. No metering required for this as they are based on off-line figures. All deviations taken care of by (C) • No complication regarding deemed generation. • Perpetual incentive for maximizing generation and reducing drawal during deficit, but no incentive to over generate during surplus.

  39. SR GRID OPERATIONAFTERMATH ABT

  40. GRID OPERATION –AFTERMATH ABT • STABILISED SYSTEM FREQUENCY • IMPROVED VOLTAGES • MERIT ORDER OPERATION • INTER REGIONAL EXCHANGES • IMPROVED GRID SECURITY JAN - 02 JAN - 03 Vol

  41. OTHER LANDMARK EVENTS • AVAILABILITY BASED TARIFF • UNIFIED LOAD DESPATCH SCHEME • TALCHER-KOLAR HVDC LINK • OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE • SPECIFIC ACTIONS BY SRLDC • FINANCIAL DISCIPLINE SCHD DRWL UI ...THESE EVENTS CHANGED THE FACE OF GRID OPERATION

  42. Voltage at Bangalore Jan 02 & 03

  43. MONSOONS SOUTH WEST MONSOON NORTH EAST MONSOON

  44. TALCHER GRID MAP BHADRAVATI JEYPORE 178x2 SIMHADRI NTPC 2x221 8x4 RSTPP 400 KV LINE PRESENTLY OPERATED AT 220 KV GAZUWAKA(AP) 1 301x2 189 15x2 P 187 195 VISAKHAPATNAM (POWERGRID) 267x2 KHAMMAM HYDERABAD 317 P P 115 197x2 P MMDP 155 P VIJAYAWADA 146x2 221x2 258 RAICHUR NAGARJUNASAGAR P TYPICAL FLOWS ARE FROM NORTH TO SOUTH GRID FOCAL POINT SHIFTED TO KOLAR AFTER COMMISSIONING OF HVDC QUANTUM CHANGES IN FLOW PATTERN LIKELY AFTER COMMISSIONING OF KOODANKULAM 2000 MW Nagjhari 279 172 308 SSLMM MUNIRABAD P KODASAALY 277 52x2 KURNOOL KAIGA SIRSI 120 P N GOOTY CUDDAPAH 60 P DAVANAGERE 300 NELLORE 173 302 KADRA HIRIYUR 330 242 28 NELAMANGALA ALMATHI BANGALORE P MADRAS P KOLAR HOODY TALGUPPA HOSUR MAPS 182 181 63 175 PONDICHERY SALEM 54 P NEYVELI 179 151 164x2 UDUMALPET TRICHY P 130x2 TRICHUR P P 127 130x2 P MADURAI ABOUT 12000 CKM 400KV TRANSMISSION PALLOM T.L.BREAKUP IS NEXT! EDAMON THIRNELVALI KAYANKULAM 2x78 KOODANKULAM THIRUVANATHAPURAM

  45. TRANSMISSION IN SOUTHERN INDIA ABOUT 2800 CKM OF 400 KV LINES ADDED IN THE PAST 2 YEARS

  46. TALCHER KOLAR SCHEMATIC TALCHER Electrode Station Electrode Station KOLAR +/- 500 KV DC line 1370 KM Kolar 400kv System 220kv system Hosur Hoody B’lore Chintamani Salem Madras Cudappah Udumalpet

  47. GENERATING UNITS IN SOUTHERN REGION A.P TYPICAL GENERATOR SPREAD IN SR KAR - HYDRO - THERMAL KER TN GENERATORS ABOVE 1000 MW - GAS / NAPTHA GENERATORS 500 – 1000 MW - NUCLEAR GENERATORS BELOW 500 MW

  48. 400KV SUB-STATIONS IN SR KALPAKKA RAMAGUNDAM 1 GAZUWAKA P SIMHADRI KHAMMAM HYDERABAD P P P MAMIDIPALLY P VIJAYAWADA RAICHUR NAGARJUNASAGAR P SRI SAILAM MUNIRABAD P KURNOOL P GOOTY CUDDAPAH 60 P NELLORE DAVANAGERE HIRIYUR NELAMANGALA BANGALORE TALAGUPPA KOLAR P MADRAS -- OF POWERGRID P HOODY HOSUR -- OF NTPC NEYVELI TPS I (EXP) 63 -- OF ANDHRA PRADESH SALEM P NEYVELI -- OF KARNATAKA UDUMALPET TRICHY P -- OF NLC TRICHUR P P P MADURAI