Behavior Change Project Gracejoy Hauser EEX 6612 Fall 2012 Dr. Suzanne Martin
Behavior Change Project Goal: Students will understand the process of implementing a Behavior Change Project by following these steps: 1. Gather Identifying Data 2. Define Behavior (Operational Definition of Behavior & Replacement Behavior) 3. Make an Observation Plan 4. Write Hypothesis for Behavior 5. Propose a Behavior Change Plan 6. Create a Graph of Data Collected
Behavior Change Project Step 1: Gather Identifying Data Name:Xander Blanca (not student’s real name) Gender: Male Age: 10 yrs. old (Date of Birth: 05/23/2011) Grade level: 4th Educational Services Required: (from IEP) • Specialized Instructional Techniques- Daily- General Ed and ESE Classroom • Small Group Instruction- Daily- General Ed and ESE Classroom • Language Therapy- 2x/wk (30 min each) Therapy and ESE Classroom • Supplementary Aids & Service- Positive Behavior Plan- Daily- School Campus
Behavior Change Project Step 2: DefineBehavior Operational Definition of Problem Behavior: Xandermakes whining noises and says, “I don’t want to go,” or “I don’t want to do it,” “I can’t do it”) when he is given a verbal or gestural instruction that it is time to transition from his homeroom class to Ms. Hauser’s class for Reading first thing in the morning (this includes transition of activities within the reading class). He puts on a sad face, shakes his head side to side to indicate ‘no,’ puts his head down on his desk and cries with a tear or two.
Behavior Change Project Operational Definition of Replacement Behavior: Xander will comply by walking (keeping hands and feet to himself) to Ms. Hauser’s class for Reading without saying “I don’t want to go,” “I don’t want to do it,” or “I can’t do it,” with no noises and without crying. He will follow verbal, gestural, or visual prompt to go to class or transition to the next activity (ie. When he gets to class to computer, computer to whole group, whole group to independent work) within 1 minute.
Behavior Change Project In Defining Behavior, also include: • Purpose: For escape or delaying work completion in his Reading block. Possibly for attention. • Frequency: 2-3 times within a 90-minute Reading Block • Duration: When Ms. Hauser comes in Xander’s room each morning at 8:50 it takes Xanderfrom 3-5 minutes to get up, gather his things, bring his binder, and get out of the room to lineup with other students heading to reading class. In class, it takes Xander between 2-5 minutes to transition to a different activity. • Context: In the morning in the Resource room, Bldg 2. Rm. 240, before and during his 90-minute Reading Block from 8:45-10:15 am. Teacher, one paraprofessional and classmates are present. (total 9 students: five 5th graders, three 4th graders, and one 3rd grader)
Behavior Change Project Step 3: Makean Observation Plan (ABC) Antecedent: Xanderis getting settled in his homeroom and going through the morning routine (taking out his planner, starting on his morning seatwork, attendance, saying the Pledge of Allegiance, watching the school announcements while writing down his daily homework in his planner.)
Behavior Change Project Step 3: Makean Observation Plan (ABC) Behavior: Xandercomplains when he is given a verbal or gestural instruction to transition from his homeroom class to Ms. Hauser’s class for Reading in the morning (this includes transitions of activities within the reading class). He makes whining noises, grunts, and says, “I don’t want to go,” “I don’t want to do it,” or “I can’t do it.” He will put on a sad face, shake his head side to side, put his head down and will cry with a tear or two.
Behavior Change Project Step 3: Makean Observation Plan (ABC) Consequence: Xander’sreading class is delayed because the teacher and his classmates are waiting for him to get up and walk out of his classroom and down the hall to Ms. Hauser’s room. He temporarily escapes from his task. He also gets attention from his classmates in the form of sympathy when they say, ‘Xander, it’s ok, you can do it.”
Behavior Change Project In Step 3, Making an Observation Plan, also include: • Observational System Used: Event Recording (frequency of how many times he complains before and during morning 90-minute small group Reading instruction) using discrete behavior. • Timeline for Observation: Daily Monday to Friday, during Reading 90-min Reading instruction for 10 days (2 weeks). (baseline) • Recording system: Frequency (Event Recording) Chart, Anecdotal Records
Behavior Change Project In Step 3, Making an Observation Plan, also include: • Reliability: Reliability of data collection can be extended with the aid of an interobserver (ie. Behavior Analyst or a paraprofessional). • Social Validity: Teaching Xander how to consistently follow directions to transition to class/activities is socially valid because intervention will show that his behavior change will be appreciated by his school community setting. The goal is for him to also generalize and maintain this skill acrosshis settings when he goes back to his homeroom teacher and other places in school.
Behavior Change Project Step 4: Write Hypothesis for Behavior Function of behavior: • Escape/avoidance of task/activity • Setting events Problem behavior is more likely to occur following disruption in Xander’s homeroom morning routine. His behavior occurs again each time there is a quick switch to a different classroom activity. • Attention from teacher and peers
Behavior Change Project Step 4: Write Hypothesis for Behavior Current behavior plan: Details from Behavior Intervention Plan(B.I.P.) from his IEP: • Preventative: arrange his desk and computer area with fewest distractions possible- perhaps some walls (cardboard or shelving) around the computer area to minimize distraction and desk close to teacher. • Educative: Talk about and model desired on task behaviors “sit tall,” “look at the teacher” and other desired behaviors using visual cues. Reward with favorite activity (ie. Books, movie in ASD classroom, PBS Kids Online website). • Functional: Have visual consequence (ie. Red light, name on board, loss of stars) when off task behavior continues. Follow through with consequence at school and at home.
Behavior Change Project Step 4: Write Hypothesis for Behavior Consequences used in current plan: Visual poster in front of the classroom with the following: 1st- Verbal Warning 2nd- Change Seats 3rd- Silent Lunch 4th- Call Parent 5th- Office Referral
Behavior Change Project Step 5: Propose a Behavior Change Plan 1. Behavior definition 2. Consequences to increase behavior 3. Consequencesto decrease behavior 4. Schedule of consequence/reinforcement 5. Parental/Guardian/Administrative approval 6. Plan for generalization of behavior 7. Plan for student management of behavior
Behavior Change Project Smiley Face Chart to Earn Computer Time at Home: Smiley face = complete task Straight face= partially complete Sad face= not completed *Each smiley face earned is equivalent to 5 minutes on the computer when he gets home. Computer time is spent with his preferred website (PBS Kids Online)
Behavior Change Project Possible reinforcers to increase behavior:(Identify at least 5) PRIMARY REINFORCERS: 1. Edible reinforcer-favorite snack or drink. 2. Sensory reinforcers-tactile(ie. Squishy balls, soft stuff toy, fiddle toys, etc.) SECONDARY REINFORCERS: 3. Activity reinforcer-Premack principle (1959). Any activity a student voluntarily performs frequently may be used as a reinforcer for any activity he seldom performs voluntarily. (Alberto & Troutman 2009) 4. Social reinforcer- positive specific verbal praise, smiles (expressions), proximity, privileges (Xander’s favorite classroom job is a line leader). 5. Tangible- certificate (ie. Good Student Award, Free Kids Meal, stickers, etc.)
Behavior Change Project ReinforcerSurvey: Student and parent are given 2 types of rewards menu at the beginning of the school year to fill out.
Behavior Change Project Practical and ethical considerations: Practicality of amount/length of reasonable computer time (number of minutes) at homewas considered. One consideration or limitation in the use of activity reinforceris that access to some high-preference activities cannot always immediately follow the low-preference behavior, in Xander’s case, his computer is not until he gets home later in the day, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the high-preference behavior as a reinforcer.
Behavior Change Project Possible consequences to decrease behavior: (At least 5) • Less or no computer time at school at the end of his activity if unsuccessfully completed • Less or no computer time at home based on how many smiley faces he earns at school each day. • Straight face on his chart for partially completed task. • Sad face on his chart for incomplete task. • Teacher will give Xandera stern face (pursed lips) when he is not performing task.
Behavior Change Project Possible consequences to decrease behavior: Level of consequence: Level 1: REINFORCEMENT-BASED Strategy In Xander’s case, the Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO) is implemented. DRO is a reinforcing stimulus delivered contingent on the target behavior’s not being emitted for a specific period of time (Reynolds, 1961). In other words, reinforcement is given when problem behavior is NOT shown.
Behavior Change Project Schedule of reinforcement/consequence: Continuous schedule of reinforcement (CRF) one-to-one ratio: reinforcement (R:SR) each time Xander produces target response/behavior, he immediately receives a reinforcer (smiley, straight, or sad face)
Behavior Change Project Parentalapproval:
Behavior Change Project Plan for generalization of behavior: Response Maintenance Xanderwill have his daily Smiley Face Chart to every setting (across settings) that he transitions to so that he may complete required task for each setting, throughout his day (over time). Each setting he goes to will have an individualized Smiley Face chart for specific behaviors he must complete successfully (across behaviors). Homeroom teacher and I will collaborate with other Special Area teachers to create and customize a behavior chart for Xander.
Behavior Change Project Plan for student management of behavior: Goal Setting: ESE Resource Teacher & Homeroom Teacher will talk to Xander to come up and set how much computer time (in minutes) he would prefer to have/work for on each successfully completed task. Teacher will also implement a student self-monitoring form for Xander so that he can follow the teacher’s copy of his Smiley Face Chart. His personal copy will also serve as his own self-recording form. He will be allowed to copy what the teacher has put in the teacher form only after completing each task.
Behavior Change Project This Powerpoint presentation is available online at my wiki site located at the link below: http://hauser-eex6612-behmgmt.wikispaces.com/ For questions or comments: Gracejoy Hauser’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org