Terms • John Marshall • Judicial Review • Louisiana Purchase • Meriwether Lewis • William Clark • Lewis & Clark Expedition • Sacagawea • Impressment • Embargo • Embargo Act of 1807 • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. His court established Judicial Review. He was a federalist and served for 34 yrs. • The Supreme Court’s power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional…originated in Marbury v. Madison • 1803 the purchase of French land between the Mississippi R. and the Rocky Mts that doubled the size of the U.S. • Former army captain selected by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase, he led the expedition known as the Lewis and Clark expedition. • American soldier, invited to be co-captain to explore the Louisiana Purchase • An expedition that began in1804 to explore the Louisiana Purchase. • Shoshone woman who, along with her French husband, accompanied and aided Lewis and Clark. • The practice of forcing people[le to serve in the army or navy: led to increased tensions between Great Britain and the U.S. in the early 1800’s. • The banning of trade with a country. • A law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries.
Terms • Non-intercourse • Tecumseh • Battle of Tippecanoe • War Hawks • Hartford Convention • Andrew Jackson • Treaty of Fort Jackson • Battle of New Orleans • Treaty of Ghent • Act of 1809 that replaced the Embargo Act and restored trade with all nations except Britain, France, and their colonies. • Shawnee Chief who attempted to form an Indian confederation to resist white settlement in the Northwest Territory. • 1811 U.S. victory over an Indian confederation that wanted to stop white settlement in the NW Territory; increased tensions between Great Britain and U.S. • Members of Congress who wanted to declare war against Britain after the Battle of Tippecanoe • A meeting of Federalists in Connecticut, to protest the War of 1812. • Nicknamed Old Hickory, he led the Tennessee militia to victory over Creek Indians (Horseshoe Bend). He is also the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. • Treaty signed after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; The Creek nation were forced to give up 23 million acres of land to the U.S. • The greatest U.S. victory in the War of 1812; actually took place 2 weeks after a peace treaty had been signed ending the war. • A treaty signed by the U.S. and Britain ending the War of 1812.
Thomas Jefferson Jeffersonian Era: Chapter 8 Aaron Burr • Election of 1800 – “Revolution of 1800” • Feds to Dem-Reps • Federalists – Adams & Pinckney • Dem-Reps – Jefferson & Burr • Revolution because 1st time U.S. has a transfer of power in gov’t • Electoral vote went to Dem-Reps… but was a tie b/w Jefferson and Burr OH NO! (Dem-Reps Messed it up) • House of Reps decide the president in cases of an Electoral Vote tie • And the sitting (Federalist) Congress decides the presidency! • http://www.270towin.com/1800_Election/
Significance of the Election • Electors – cast two ballots • Most votes = President • 2nd most votes = Vice-President • Dem-Reps didn’t throw one away, instead split the ticket in half 73/73 • It will take the Congress 36 votes before a tie is broken. • Jefferson declared winner because of Hamilton’s help. • The political takeover will be peaceful with only egos taking a hit. • The election will cement political division in America b/w North and South. • North– pro-business & manufacturing, strong centralized gov’t • South – pro-agriculture & states’ rights and decentralized power • 12th Amendment – corrects the electoral mistake by having electors vote for one ticket (each ticket has a candidate for Pres & VP).
Hamilton’s role in Election • Against Adams but supports Pinckney, creates turmoil within the Fed Party • Supports Jefferson tie-breaker vote; convinced other Feds to vote for TJ • thought Burr lacked character and untrustworthy. • Burr vs. Hamilton Duel of 1804 • This comes back to bite Hamilton • Hamilton is not winning
Jefferson’s Policies (3rd President) He believed in and wanted to: • Limit gov’t powers • Supported the will of the majority • Lower military spending and size of armed forces • Cut taxes like the Whiskey tax • Agreed to keep the Bank of U.S. • Jefferson’s ally is Congress – Exec and Leg Branches were Dem-Reps • Only opposition was the Judiciary – Federalists appointed before he was President.
Marbury vs. Madison • Case is about a late appointment by Adams (Marbury) that was blocked by Sec. of State Madison. • Supreme Court decided against Marbury claiming the law he cited was unconstitutional. • ESTABLISHED JUDICIAL REVIEW • No power written in the Constitution for the Supreme court to rule on federal laws. • They give themselves the power to do this. • Judicial Review will be used in every court case after this first one and is now considered part of the “unwritten” Constitution.
Louisiana • Controlled by the Spanish but given back to France in 1802. • Napoleon (emperor) looking to use the land to restore France’s power in the world. • Americans lost access to New Orleans, upsetting agricultural trade in the frontier. • Jefferson sends Livingston and Madison to buy New Orleans only.
Louisiana Purchase $15m • Napoleon wanted to use Haiti to launch military attacks into Louisiana. • Lost Haiti in a slave revolt and decided to give up on Louisiana. • Focused on Europe and offers Louisiana for $15 million • That is less than.03₵ an acre • Automatically doubles the size of the U.S. extending our land from the Miss R. to Rocky Mts.
Lewis and Clark Expedition • The expedition (Corps of Discovery) was responsible for claiming and discovering the land the U.S. had bought. • They were to map the area, trade w/ and learn about Native groups, describe landforms, plants, and animals. • The kept journals of everything they saw and reported back to Jefferson. • The sailed rivers, carried boats around waterfalls, and climbed mt. ranges. • They used Charbonneau and his wife Sacagawea (had a baby) as interpreters and guides along their journey. • The Corps left St. Louis, MO in May 1804 – Reached Rockies in Fall ‘05 – Reached Pacific in Winter ‘05. • Returned to St. Louis in Sept of ‘06
Zebulon Pike • Tasked with discovering the start of the Red River. (TX & OK) • Discovered Pikes Peak in Colorado never reached the summit!
The Coming of War • World trade is a hostile environment • Barbary Pirates (N. Africa) needed to be put down by U.S. Navy between 1801-1805 • France and England go to war again, neither want U.S. to help. • England begins Impressment methods to gain more soldiers. • Customary in colonial times, now it outrages the young country.
Embargo Act & Non-Intercourse (1807 -1809) • To punish Europe but only hurts the U.S. economy. • Lost a lot of money w/o international trade. • Jefferson’s popularity took a big hit • Non-Inter law didn’t work either and only conflict would settle the disagreement.
“The white people have no right to take the land from the Indians, because the Indians had it first.” Tecumseh • Americans want land in Great Lakes area. • Natives want to keep their land. • G. B. sees opportunity knocking – stop American advance. • With G.B. aid, Tecumseh united other tribes to fight back vs. Americans. • Wm. H. Harrison then defeat’s Natives (Tecumseh absent) at Tippecanoe (1811).
War? (1807 – 1811) • War Hawks want war with G.B. believing they mastermind conflict w/ Natives. • They wanted land in Canada and outright independence from Britain. • Federalists opposed war and wanted better trade options with G.B. • Also worried about our ability to win. • For the first time, Congress Declared war on another nation (Madison).
War of 1812 & Creek War • Battle of Lake Erie helped secure Great Lakes area for U.S. • Tecumseh’s death also hurt British alliance with natives. • Our Capital invaded and buildings burnt (White House) • Next attack stopped in Baltimore at Ft. McHenry (Star-Spangled Banner) • Jackson defeat against the Creek Nation in Alabama gave America more native land. • Jackson then destroys British at New Orleans…2 weeks after the Peace Treaty was signed!