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Life-Span Development in Late Late Adulthood

Life-Span Development in Late Late Adulthood

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Life-Span Development in Late Late Adulthood

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  1. Life-Span Development in Late Late Adulthood dealing with end of life developmental tasks and issues Caitlyn Andrews Vanessa Barriga Anna Clark Jennifer Jaber Beth Lee Alisa Meyer

  2. Agenda • Relationships • Vanessa Barriga • Physical Health • Caitlyn Andrews • Brain Changes • Anna Clark • Mental Health / Behavioral Health • Alisa Meyer • Death and End of Life Preparation • Beth Lee • The Best Parts of Being at Late Late Age • Jennifer Jaber

  3. Relationships: Social & Community • Age Groups • Level two • Life Expectancy • Level two • Stereotypes • Level two • Work and Retirement • Level two • Theories • Level two • Religion • Level two • Political Issues • Level two • Social Support and Integration • Level two • Friendship • Level two Vanessa Barriga

  4. Relationships:Sexuality & Partners • Statistics • Level two • Level 3 • Romance and Sex • Level two • Level 3 Vanessa Barriga

  5. Relationships:Sexuality & Partners http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fT4KovVUc78 Vanessa Barriga

  6. Relationships:Family System & Living Arrangements • Marriage Statistics • Level two • Level 3 • Divorce and Remarriage • Level two • Level 3 • Cohabitation • Level two • Level 3 • Grandparents, Parents • Level two Vanessa Barriga

  7. Physical Health At my age, happy hour is nap time. Caitlyn Andrews

  8. Physical Appearance & Movement • Shorter in height • drop in weight • lose muscle • move more slowly • Vision/visual acuity • color vision and depth of perception decline • Hearing: • Can be significant loses in high and middle frequencies • Smell and taste • Decreases in sense of taste and smell • Touch and pain • Declines in sensitivity • Changes in Sexuality • Sexuality can be life long! • Men have more trouble with sexual performance at this age; orgasms become less frequent. Caitlyn Andrews

  9. Physical Health: Diseases (Health PRobelms) • Arthritis: An inflammation of the joints accompanied by pain, stiffness, and movement problems • Osteoporosis: Extensive loss of bone tissue • 80% of people affected are women. • Prevention: Diet, Bone density checks, and EXERCISE • Danger of Accidents: 7th leading cause of death for older adults. • Fall at home, Traffic accident, Slower recuperation time • Substance Abuse: Danger when taking multiple medications • “Invisible epidemic” • Nursing Homes • 23% of adults over 85 live in nursing homes or extended-care facilities • Concerns for privacy, medical information, safety and lifestyle freedom, expensive, quality Caitlyn Andrews

  10. Physical Health My forgetter's getting betterBut my rememberer is brokeTo you that may seem funnyBut, to me, that is no joke. At times I put something awayWhere it is safe, but, Gee!The person it is safest fromIs, generally, me! When shopping I may see someone,Say "Hi" and have a chat,Then, when the person walks awayI ask myself, "who was that?" Yes, my forgetter's getting betterWhile my rememberer is broke,And it's driving me plumb crazyAnd that isn't any joke. Caitlyn Andrews

  11. Physical Health:Alzheimer’s • Progressive, irreversible brain disorder • that is characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language and physical function. • 25 million people world wide • Deficiency in chemical acetylcholine • Genes play an important role • Prevention • Diet: Vitamin D3, antioxidants found in green tea, naturally occurring compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. • EXERCISE • Complex thinking and socialization: “exercising the brain” • Treatment • Cholinerase inhibitors (Drugs) • NMDA drugs • Marijuana Caitlyn Andrews

  12. Physical Health:Exercise & Nutrition • Body mass declines with age • 6.6 pounds of lean muscle each decade during the adult years • 60 years + • 30 minutes of moderately intense activity (brisk walk) • five or more days a week • Strength training • two or more days a week Caitlyn Andrews

  13. Physical Health:Important of Diet &Risk of Malnutrition • Dietary restrictions • Risk of malnutrition • Antioxidants Caitlyn Andrews

  14. Physical Health:7 Ways Exercise can Improve Quality of Life • Increased longevity • Prevention of diseases • Improvement of treatment of many diseases • Improves cellular functioning • Optimize body composition and reduce decline in motor skills • Reduces likelihood of developing metal health problems • Improve brain and cognitive functioning Caitlyn Andrews

  15. Brain Changes:Theoriesof Aging • Cellular Clock Theory • cells can divide a maximum of 75 to 80 times • Free Radical Theory • free radicals damage DNA and other cellular structures causing the aging of the body • Mitochondrial Theory • aging is due to the decay of mitochondria which supplies the cell with essential energy for function, growth and repair • Hormonal Stress Theory • aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease Anna Clark

  16. Brain Changes: Physical & Cognitive Changes • Cognitive Mechanics • the “hardware” of the mind • speed and accuracy of processes • declines as one ages • Cognitive Pragmatics • the “software” of the mind • learned skills and knowledge • does not necessarily decline Anna Clark

  17. Brain Changes: Physical & Cognitive Changes Cognitive changes in older adults: • Decreased speed of processing • Decline in ability to control attention • selective attention-being able to focus on relevant stimuli and ignoring irrelevant stimuli • divided attention-concentrating on more than one activity at the same time • sustained attention-vigilance • Memory • decline in episodic, working, perceptual speed, explicit, source, and perspective • very little decline in semantic and implicit • those with positive beliefs about their memory remember more • Correlated to higher cognitive ability: • Education level • Cognitively complex work • Health (lifestyle and exercise) Anna Clark

  18. Brain Changes: Physical & Cognitive Changes • Physical changes in older adults: • Brain Shrinkage • Brain Slowing • Lack of Dendritic Growth • Reduction in Neurotransmitter Production Anna Clark

  19. Brain Changes:Adaptations of the Brain • Neurogenesis • the generation of new neurons • Rewiring • older brains rewire themselves to compensate for losses • Decrease in lateralization • older adults are more likely to use both hemispheres in carrying out tasks Anna Clark

  20. Brain Changes Ways to Counteract Brain Decline : • Cognitively complex activities • Physical exercise • Diet • Minimize stress Anna Clark

  21. Mental /Behavioral Health:Depression “A lot of what passes for depression these days is nothing more than a body saying that it needs work.” –Geoffrey Norman • What is Depression? • According to Santrock, depression is a mood disorder in which the individual feels deeply unhappy, de-moralized, self-derogatory, and bored. • Research Studies • Researchers found that depressive symptoms vary from less frequent to no more frequent in late adulthood than middle adulthood. What do these studies show? • Lower freq of depressive symptoms in older adults compared to middle aged was linked with fewer economic hardships, fewer negative social interchanges and increased religiosity. • Who is affected? • More common in males than females. • Predictors • Poor health, disability, loss, low social support. • Treatment • Depression IS treatable. Alisa Meyer

  22. Mental /Behavioral Health:Victimization, Crime, & Maltreatment • Fear • The decline and limitations in late adulthood contribute to sense of vulnerability and fear. • Crime • Older adults less likely than younger adults to be victim of crime • How often does it occur? • Found 6 percent experienced abuse in the past month. • Type of abuse • Institutional abuse • What can we do? Alisa Meyer

  23. Mental /Behavioral Health:Life Satisfaction • Affect and Outlook • Positive and Negative outlook • Self Esteem • Low self-esteem in the elderly population Alisa Meyer

  24. Mental /Behavioral Health:Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood “…There are chapters for pain, anger, guilt, and grief, but there are also opportunities for resolution and celebration, for affirmation and hope, for reconciliation and personal growth.” – Robert Butler • Erickson’s Theory • Integrity vs. Despair (8th and final stage of development) • Life review (Robert Butler) • use of Reminiscence Therapy • Activity Theory • Increased happiness with increased activity • Socioemotional Selectivity Theory • Theory that older adults become more selective about their social networks • Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory • Composed of selection, optimization, compensation (SOC) • Proposed by Paul Bates, based on Rubenstein who was interviewed at 80 years old about what factors were responsible for his ability to maintain his status as an admired pianist Alisa Meyer

  25. Death & End of Life PreparationAttitudes at Late Late Age • Know the psycho-social aspects of Death among the elderly • Elder death touches everyone at some time • Counselors often serve as • Containers of difficult or awkward feelings • The neutral party who can raise important topics • Theorists and researchers consider • Awareness (insight) • Increasing certainty in a culture that denies it • Temporal nearness (salience) • Qualitative nature of preparedness (developmental tasks) • Cultural definitions of a “good death” Beth Lee

  26. Death & End of Life PreparationTalking about Death • Elderly people think and talk readily about death • Non-institutionalized more frequently • Institutionalized, less opportunity • “the belief that discussing death creates a negative mental framework and self-image that may interfere with the best possible client care” (Leif, 1982) • More thinking and talking than preparedness • 74% have a will, but only 53% & 65% spoke to family & friends about end of life wishes Schrader, Nelson, & Eidsness (2009) Beth Lee

  27. Death & End of Life Preparation Death Anxiety • Existential Definition • Although the physicality of death destroys us, it is the idea of death that saves us (Yalom, 1980) • Death is the condition that makes it possible for us to live in an authentic fashion (Heidegger, 1926) • By allowing us to embrace our possibilities and limits • Boundary pressure drives choices towards authenticity • This is the death driven developmental task of late late age It's not that I'm afraid to die, I just don't want to be there when it happens. Woody Allen Beth Lee

  28. Death & End of Life Preparation Death Anxiety • Geriatric care providers (medical, behavioral, pragmatic) encounter DA daily in clients and their families • May impair the ability to make unbiased decisions • May prevent the flow of information, sometimes against the law (Sinoff, et al, 2008) • DA on the part of care givers may obstruct an elderly person’s right to die naturally • 4 out of 5 people would prefer to die at home (Hine, 1979) • DA is functionally two constructs: • Fear of death • Fear of the dying process • DA as a function of age • Peaks in middle- age • All but disappears in elderly (Twelker, 2006) Beth Lee

  29. Death Anxiety as a Function of Age Sinoff, Iosipovici, Almog, & Barnett-Greens (2008)

  30. Death & End of Life Preparation Cultural Issues of Preparing • Cultural Sensitivity about Death rituals requires investigation • In the US, preparedness for death has a legal and psycho-social component • Excellent resource on emerging ritual: http://www.dailyundertaker.com Beth Lee

  31. Death & End of Life Preparation Cultural Issues of Preparing • Emerging EOL Traditions • There’s an app for that…. • Kaddish, the Jewish Mourner's prayer, is recited publicly every day for 11 months after a parent's death as a reaffirmation of faith. This requirement can be difficult for many to fulfill properly though, as the prayer is in Aramaic. Now there is help in the form of an iPhone app to tutor mourners in the pronunciation of this important prayer. • Bosan, which in Japanese means grave honoring, is a newly released iPhone app from KnowledgEx which allows you to register information about and carry photos of a loved one’s grave, as well as photos of the deceased. Whenever you want and where ever you are in your busy schedule, you can virtually honor the grave of your loved one with a prayer, along with offerings of incense, flowers, food and water. Beth Lee

  32. The Best Part of Late Late Age! Jennifer Jaber

  33. The Best Part of Late Late Age! Benefits of Late Late Adulthood Jennifer Jaber

  34. The Best Part of Late Late Age: Successful Aging • Positive Aspects being studied • Growing subject in psychology • Factors linked with Successful Aging • Active lifestyle • Positive coping skills • Good social relationships • Support • Absence of disease • Being Active is especially important to successful aging • Mental and Physical exercise • Generativity • Self -efficacy • Control over the environment • Keeping a positive attitude • Result: higher levels of happiness Jennifer Jaber

  35. The Best Part of Late Late Age! • Felice News • Not- for- profit based in Toronto that tells only good news • http://www.felicenews.com/the-five-best-things-about-getting-older.html • Late Age gives you ready made excuses! • Failing memory (even if your hearing is fine!) • Hearing “loss” (selective hearing) • Other people get to take care of you • Freedom to do what you want Jennifer Jaber

  36. The Best Part of Late Late Age! Secrets of the Centenarians (NYTimes.com) http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/10/19/health/20101018-centenarians-voices-photos.html Jennifer Jaber

  37. The Best Part of Late Late Age! Age is an issue of mind over matter. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter. Mark Twain 1855, aprox 20 yrs old Much older: Be good, and you will be lonesome. Jennifer Jaber

  38. references • Alzheimer’s Disease Research. August 8. 2010. American Health Assistance Foundation. Ahaf.org. • http://www.ahaf.org/alzheimers/about/risk/?gclid=CJuA-ZWF8aQCFQIGbAodeFsV1w • Denny’s Poems and Quotes. http://www.dennydavis.net/poemfiles/aging2b.htm • Knoth, R., Singec, I., Ditter, M., Pantazis, G., Capetian, P., et al. (2010). Murine features of neurogenesis in the human hippocampus across the lifespan from 0 to 100 years. PLoS ONE 5(1). doi:10.1371/0008809 • Kennard, Christine. Marijuana May Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease. About.com. October 6.2006. • http://alzheimers.about.com/od/research/a/marijuana_alz.htm • Kramer, A.F., Fabiani, M., & Colcombe, S.J. (2006). Contributions of cognitive neuroscience to the understanding of behavior and aging. In handbook of the psychology of aging (4). doi: 10.1016/B978012101264-9/50007-0 • Lieff, Jonathan D. (1982). "Eight reasons why doctors fear the elderly, chronic illness, and death." Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 14, no. 1: 47-60. • May, R., & Yalom, I. (1989). Existential psychotherapy. Current psychotherapies (4th ed.) (pp. 363-402). Itasca, IL US: F E Peacock Publishers. • Schrader, S., Nelson, M., & Eidsness, L. (2009). 'South Dakota’s dying to know': A statewide survey about end of life. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(8), 695-705. • Sinoff, G., Iosipovici, A., Almog, R., & Barnett-Greens, O. (2008). Children of the elderly are inapt in assessing death anxiety in their own parents. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(11) • Twelker PA. 2006. The relationship between death anxiety, sex, and age. Internet resource available at URL: http://www.tiu.edu/psychology/deathanxiety.htm • Weed, W.S. (n.d.). 7 anti-aging tips to keep your brain young. Retrieved from http://www.rd.com/living-healthy/7-anti-aging-tips-to-keep-your-brain-young/article28203.html • Yalom, I. (2008). Staring at the sun: Overcoming the terror of death. The Humanistic Psychologist, 36(3-4), 283-297.