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RUSSIA

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  1. RUSSIA

  2. Facts… • With a land area of 6.5 million sq. miles, Russia is the largest country in the world • Population estimates – 148 million people • Russia is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world • The population is predominantly urban • Russia is so large, that the climate varies greatly throughout the country • Russia has 11 time zones

  3. Homework - Russia • Read pages 415 to 418 • Write out answers to questions 2, 4, and 5 on page 418. • Know key terms • Taiga, steppe, chernozem, medved, Caspian Sea, Vladivostok

  4. Location • Russia is bounded by the Arctic and Pacific Oceans • Ural mountains divide Eurasian continent – and Russia - to Europe and Asia (78% live west of Urals) • Boundaries with 13 countries

  5. Weather • Central Russia has a continental climate • Summers are hot and short, while the winters are cold and long. • A Russian winter is famous for its frigid temperatures. • Much of Russia is covered by snow six months of year. • It has to be lived through to be really appreciated.  Winter starts in October and continues through March (November-January are the darkest months) - Interesting fact: Russia’s most southern port, Novorossiysk is on the same latitude as Minneapolis.

  6. (very) Brief History Summary • 862 – founding of KievanRus by Viking Rurik, the birth of what became the Russian state • Mid-13th century – Mongol Horde invasion • 1480 – Moscow liberated from Tatar (Mongol) yoke • 1613 – Rurik dynasty ended, Romanov dynasty begins (ends 1917) • 1812 – Napoleon failed in his attempt to conquer Russia (after occupying Moscow)

  7. History Summary, cont’d. • October 1917 – Bolsheviks seized control (led by Lenin) • 1922 – USSR established • 1941-1945 – WWII (Great Patriotic War), Russia loses 1/6 of its population (~ 30,000,000) • Stalin’s purges – an additional 20 to 40 mln • 1985 – Gorbachev introduced political and economical reforms • 1991 – USSR is formally dissolved, Yeltsin became the new president; CIS is formed • 2000 – Putin is elected president of Russia

  8. RELIGIOUS GROUPS 5% 10% 7% 5% 18% 55%

  9. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES • IMMENSE TERRITORIAL STATE • NORTHERNMOST LARGE AND POPULOUS COUNTRY IN THE WORLD • A FORMER WORLD COLONIAL POWER • A COMPARITIVELY SMALL (<150 MILLION) AND CONCENTRATED POPULATION (Japan 128 million) • CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT • MULTICULTURAL STATE • MINIMAL PORTS

  10. RUSSIA-US SIZE COMPARISON

  11. SIZE, LOCATION AND SPACE RELATIONSHIPS • LATITUDINAL EXTENT • Northernmost point: Rudolf Island in Franz Joseph Land (82o) • Southernmost point: Grozny in west and Vladivostok in east (44o) • Monmouth is 44.7727oN • LONGITUDINAL EXTENT • More than twice its maximum north-south extent and extends through 11 time zones • Russia makes up 76.6% of the total territory of the former USSR

  12. REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN REALM

  13. EARLY 16TH CENTURY(IVAN THE TERRIBLE- 1547-1584)

  14. END OF THE 17TH CENTURY(PETER THE GREAT- 1682-1725)

  15. EARLY 20TH CENTURY

  16. GROWTH OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

  17. GROWTH OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

  18. FORWARD CAPITAL Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border, confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the region

  19. CLIMATOLOGY • CLIMATE • AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS FOR A GIVEN AREA OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME • WEATHER • REFERS TO THE ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS AT A SPECIFIC PLACE AND TIME • CLIMATOLOGY • A BRANCH OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY • CONCERNED WITH: • SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF CLIMATE OVER THE SURFACE OF THE EARH • PROCESSES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE DISTRIBUTION

  20. RUSSIAN CLIMATE • Affected by 3 natural conditions: -- Latitudinal Position -- Continental Position -- Location of major mountains

  21. CLIMATE

  22. Vegetation ... terms • Tundra • Treeless plain along the Arctic • Moss, lichen, grass • Taiga • Coniferous forests south of the Tundra, extending over Siberia (“sleeping land”) • Steppe • Like our Prairie • semi-arid grasslands with short grasses that are found in dry areas that have hot summers and cold winters

  23. CLIMATE AS A RESTRICTIVE ELEMENT • AGRICULTURE • Short growing seasons • Drought prone • Erosion (accelerated via snow melt) • SETTLEMENT PATTERNS & TRANSPORTATION • INDUSTRY • High energy consumption • Specialized equipment and facilities • Extractive • permafrost • spring and fall mud • special equipment and facilities - $$$

  24. AGRICULTURAL PATTERNS

  25. SETTLEMENT / TRANSPORTATION PATTERNS

  26. RUSSIA’S PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

  27. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS • RUSSIAN PLAIN • EASTWARD CONTINUATION OF NORTH EUROPEAN LOWLAND • CORE AREA (MOSCOW BASIN) • URAL MOUNTAINS • 2,000 MILES LONG (NORTH-SOUTH) • YIELD A VARIETY OF MINERALS • WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN • WORLD’S LARGEST UNBROKEN LOWLANDS • PERMAFROST

  28. RUSSIAN PLAIN

  29. THE URAL MOUNTAINS • The north-south length covers 2500 kms. • The highest points are in the Northern Urals-2000 meters in places. • The Central Urals are the lowest section and include several key crossing places. • The Southern Urals are wider and consist of a number of parallel north-south ridges and intervening valleys. • Ural forests and minerals have been the basis for industrialization and boast at least twenty different commercially usable minerals.

  30. WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN • The world’s largest unbroken lowland • Includes the Ob and Irtysh River Basin • Permafrost • Major Cities: • Omsk • Novosibirsk

  31. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS(continued) • CENTRAL SIBERIAN PLATEAU • SPARSELY POPULATED, TEMPERATURE EXTREMES, PERMAFROST • YAKUTSK BASIN • MOUNTAINOUS, HIGH RELIEF • EASTERN HIGHLANDS • RANGES, RIDGES, PRECIPITOUS VALLEYS, VOLCANIC MOUNTAINS, LAKE BAYKAL • CENTRAL ASIAN RANGES • RISE ABOVE THE SNOW LINE, GLACIATED • CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS • EXTENSIONS OF THE ALPINES

  32. CENTRAL SIBERIAN PLATEAU • Sparsely settled • Inaccessible • Restrictive climate • Permafrost • Natural resources

  33. MANUFACTURING REGIONS

  34. RUSSIA’S ECONOMIC/MANUFACTURING ZONES (EASTERN FRONTIER)

  35. VAST • CHALLENGING • UNTAPPED

  36. SIBERIA • LARGER THAN THE CONTINENTAL US, BUT...LESS THAN 15 MILLION PEOPLE • CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENT • VAST DISTANCES • COLD TEMPERATURES • ARCTIC WINDS • POOR SOILS • RESOURCE POTENTIAL • PRECIOUS MINERALS • METALLIC ORES • OIL AND NATURAL GAS • TIMBER

  37. EASTERN HIGHLANDS

  38. FAR EAST

  39. RUSSIAN FAR EAST TRANSPORTATION LINKS

  40. MANUFACTURING REGIONS

  41. RUSSIA’S ECONOMIC/MANUFACTURING ZONES (FAR EAST)

  42. OIL AND GAS REGIONS

  43. CENTRAL ASIAN RANGES

  44. CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS

  45. Georgia Azerbaijan Armenia TRANSCAUCASIA

  46. FUEL RESOURCES

  47. TRANSPORTATION LINKS