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_ PAIN IN BABIES

_ PAIN IN BABIES

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_ PAIN IN BABIES

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  1. _PAIN IN BABIES 10301010046 宋子贤

  2. Why they cry? • Hungry? • Unhappy? • Diaper is wet? • Noisy? • Pain

  3. Effects of pain • Inadequate oxygen supply • Increased requirement for oxygen • Reduction in the efficiency of gas exchange in the lungs • Cause a rise in stomach acidity • May be aspirated into the lung • Reduced efficiency of the immune system • Increased morbidity and mortality • Aggression and self-destructive behavior, including suicide

  4. Specialty • Lower threshold to stimulation • They cannot tell

  5. Diagnosis • Crying • Irritable • Disturbed sleep pattern • Feeds poorly • Fearful, distrustful reaction • Blood pressure and stress hormone levels

  6. ChIPPS(Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale) • 0 - 3 No requirement for treating pain, • 4 - 10 Progressively greater need for analgesia.

  7. TreatmentMeasures not involving medication • Comforting • Oral stimulation • Oral sugar • Other techniques

  8. TreatmentMeasures involving medication • Local anesthetics • Analgesics • Side effects

  9. References • Anand KJS, Sippell WG, Aynsley-Green A. Randomized trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on stress response. Lancet 1987;1:62-66. • Anand KJS, Scalzo FM. Can Adverse Neonatal Experiences Alter Brain Development and Subsequent Behavior? Biology of the Neonate, 2000: 77(2); 69-82 • Anand KJS, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. The New England Journal Of Medicine, 1987, Volume 317, Number 21: Pages 1321-1329. • Anand KJS, et al. Summary Proceedings From the Neonatal Pain-Control Group. Pediatrics, 2006, Vol. 117 No. 3, pp. S9-S22 doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0620C. • Fitzgerald M, Beggs S. The neurobiology of pain: developmental aspects. Neuroscientist. 2001;7:246-57. • Howard RF. Developmental Factors and Acute Pain in Children. in Pain 2005 – An Updated Review: Refresher Course Syllabus, ed. Justins DM. IASP Press, Seattle, 2005. • "IASP definition, full entry". Retrieved 6 October 2009. This often quoted definition was first formulated by an IASP Subcommittee on Taxonomy:Bonica, JJ (1979). "The need of a taxonomy.". Pain6 (3): 247–252. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(79)90046-0. ISSN 0304-3959. PMID 460931.It is derived from Harold Merskey's 1964 definition: "An unpleasant experience that we primarily associate with tissue damage or describe in terms of tissue damage or both."Merskey, H (1964). An Investigation of pain in psychological illness, DM Thesis. Oxford University. • Koeslag J. The Human Lifecycle, Part 19. Development Of Communication. Division of Medical Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Stellenbosch. Online version • Zeskind PS. Cross-Cultural Differences in Maternal Perceptions of Cries of Low- and High-Risk Infants. Child Development, 1983;Vol. 54, No. 5, 1119-1128. DOI 10.2307/1129668 Online Version • Buttner W, Finke W. Analysis of behavioral and physiological parameters for the assessment of postoperative analgesic demand in newborns, infants and young children: a comprehensive report on seven consecutive studies. Paediatric Anaesthesia. 2000; 10: 303-318.

  10. Q & A Thank you for listening!