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Transportación y Calentamiento Global

Transportación y Calentamiento Global

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Transportación y Calentamiento Global

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  1. Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering PI, Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) UPRMCampus Verde Transportación y Calentamiento Global

  2. Esta información se encuentra en:

  3. En estas gráficas se compara los eventos naturales y antropogénicos con las medidas reales.

  4. Para meditar… Les invito a contar los conductores en lasmañanas

  5. Emisiones de gases: CO2, N2O y otros GHG • Terrestre: • China – adiós a lasbicicletas • Autos, transporte en masa: trenes, buses • Barcos: de carga: mercancíaimportada • Aviones : los quemenoscontribuyenaGHG • Soluciones: • Tecnologías: MPG in Japan and about Electric, Hybrids, H, smartCar, biofuel • Cities: renting bikes and cars on the spot • UN Uchicago: Reports, • Surprising Climate Impact Larger than Transportation

  6. Transport increases with Economic Development around the World • Petroleum that supplies 95% of the total energy used by world transport. • In 2004, transport was responsible for 23% of world energy-related GHG emissions with about ¾ coming from road vehicles.

  7. Autos/persona • Vehicle ownership as a function of per capita income Data source: World Bank, 2004. $

  8. More cars than people? Worldwide • 1950 - 50 million vehicles • 1997 580 million vehicles 5x faster growth than population In China, vehicle sales (not including scooters, motorcycles and locally manufactured rural vehicles) have increased from • 2001- 2.4 million • 2005 -5.6 million • 2006 - 7.2 million

  9. Rail transport • Rail transport is one of the most energy efficient modes today • Further efficiency improvements: • Reduced aerodynamic drag • lower train weight • regenerative breaking • higher efficiency propulsion systems

  10. Ships • Around 90% of global merchandise is transported by sea • For many countries sea transport represents the most important mode of transport for trade • Shipping has potential for up to 40% increased efficiency.

  11. Airplanes • Passenger airplanes today are 70% more fuel efficient than 40 years ago & continued improvement is expected. • A 50% improvement over 1997 aircraft efficiency is likely by 2050 . • Sulfure emissions (-) Still potential novel designs such as blended wing body, or propulsion systems such as the inducted turbofan.

  12. In order to reduce emissions from air and marine transport … • … new policy frameworks need to be developed. • Now we have a voluntary scheme. • Other policies would include international emissions trading schemes, fuel taxes and regulatory instruments

  13. Some Solutions • Biofuels have the potential to replace a part of petroleum use by transport. (caña, algas, hibiscos) • Recent IEA estimates that biofuels’ share of transport fuel could increase to about 10% in 2030. • Public transports systems and promoting non-motorized transport whenever possible. • Renting cars/bikes on the spot • Large increases in prices or taxes • Many countries do heavily tax motor fuels and have lower rates of fuel consumption

  14. The Best Policy Choice … varies across regions: • levels of economic development, • the nature of economic activity, • geography, • population density • culture all influence the effectiveness and desirability of policies affecting modal choices, infrastructure investments and transport demand management measures

  15. EPA about cars (Environmental Protection Agency) in 2005: New car’s MPG would have been 24% higher had the cars remained at the weight and performance distribution it had in 1987. US cars cannot be sold in Japan!

  16. Petroleum Production Peak • There is an on-going debate about the date when conventional oilproduction will peak, with many arguing that this will occur within the next few decade$! • Politically unstable countries

  17. MPG = miles per gallon • U.S. transportation is responsible for about a 1/3 of country’s climate-changing emissions. • Compared to 15-23% globally (cars, trucks, airplanes, ships, and other vehicles.) Need to Regulate greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles and raise national fuel economy standards

  18. MPG = miles per gallon • Typical: 17 MPG • with driving tricks on next slide: • 27 MPG • With driving tricks AND a Prius • 120 MPG

  19. Mejora tu MPG • Usa aceleración mínima • Guía menos, combina viajes • No dejes auto prendido > 1min • Remueve exceso de equipaje • Estaciona en la sombra • Mantén auto tune-up & gomas infladas • Considera un auto Híbrido • Apaga A/C cuesta arriba & cuando está fresco • Evita hoyos y muertos • Usa cambios Overdrive *Cada millaahorra 20 libras de CO2de ser emitidas al aire!

  20. Velocidad óptima ¿a qué velocidad guío? • Respeta máximo de velocidad, y ahorrarás $ 55

  21. Who killed the electric car? • 0-60mph in 3.8 seconds! • 125 MPG equivalence! • Too clean! • Destroyed in 1996 Watch trailer

  22. Future Advanced technologies that provide great promise include greater use of electric-drive technologies, including hybrid-electric power trains, battery electric vehicles. The use of alternative fuels such as natural gas, biofuels, electricity and hydrogen, in combination with improved conventional and advanced technologies; provide the potential for even larger reductions. Plug-in hybrids Battery electric Small 2-passenger Hybrid; electric/gasoline

  23. Carros Híbridos Highlander Hybrid 25-40 mpg Toyota Prius 45-60 mpg Now other hybrids & electric … Hummer: 3-12 mpg

  24. Hydrogen car $400,000?!

  25. Trivia: ¿qué produce másemisiones de gases de invernadero: autos/camiones o consumo de carne ? • Según reportes de las Naciones Unidas, de EPA, y estudios de U Chicago, dejar de comer carne es mejor para el planeta que si quitáramos todos los autos y camiones del mundo! • 2006 United Nations report found that the meat industry produces more greenhouse gases than all the SUVs, cars, trucks, planes, and ships in the world combined. Due to deforestation, water use, flatulence, transport, and other processes involved in livestock industry.

  26. So… • Si no tienes $ para un Prius, y quieres ayudar al planeta ( y a tu salud) … • Come menos carne o se vegetariano. 

  27. Climate Change effects • Flooded roads and subways • deformed railroad tracks • weakened bridges • Lost of permafrost • Expensive travelling • Cost of products • Adverse weather Ex. In Holland, 1986-2004, loss in waterway transport due to low water level; €21M

  28. Many new technologies… Seattle, WA Concreto Poroso El Concreto Poroso es resistente pero a la vez deja pasar el agua a través de la superficie. Eso es importante en sitios donde llueve mucho. Filtración Natural Se traduce en agua menos contaminada que llega a los acueductos, a riachuelos y a cuerpos de agua subterráneos.

  29. ProverbioNativo-americanoNo heredamos la Tierra de nuestrosancestros.La tomamosprestada de nuestroshijos.


  31. References • • "Global Warming: Methane," U.S. EPA, 8 Mar. 2006. • World Business Council for Sustainable Development Mobility 2001 (2002), prepared by MIT and Charles River Associates Inc. • Automotive News Data Center: • Andrew Pierce, "Global WarmingIsMankind’sGreatestChallenge, Says Prince," The Times 28 Oct. 2005. • • • • H. Steinfeldet al., Livestock's Long Shadow: EnvironmentalIssues and Options, Livestock, Environment and Development (2006). • "Sources and Emissions: Methane," U.S. EnvironmentalProtectionAgency, 2 Jun. 2006. • International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).