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Global Media

Global Media. Global Media. Propaganda The Global Media Manufacturing Consent The Assault on Reason University Style Assignment Media Truisms Doublespeak Military Propaganda. Information Highway Credibility of Resources A Matter of Perspective Measuring YOUR Perspective

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Global Media

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  1. Global Media

  2. Global Media • Propaganda • The Global Media • Manufacturing Consent • The Assault on Reason • University Style Assignment • Media Truisms • Doublespeak • Military Propaganda • Information Highway • Credibility of Resources • A Matter of Perspective • Measuring YOUR Perspective • Perspective Assignment • Bias • Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Bias in the Media • Bias vs. Non -Bias Article Assignment

  3. Global Media • Determining the Credibility of Different Media Sources • Television • Analyzing the News • Toxic Sludge • Magazine • The Civil War between South Sudan and Sudan • Newspaper • Reported: “Beslan School Reopens” • Comparing Canada’s Newspapers • Hollywood • Black Hawk Down

  4. Information Highway

  5. Credibility of Resources • Issues can become confused very easily through several different factors. • Read the article “What is Your Point of View”

  6. Credibility of Resources • Paradigm • A framework, or overall worldview, on which knowledge claims are made. • Paradigms are the rules and conditions we use to understand those things we perceive. • If the paradigm changes it is called a paradigm shift (ie a geocentric view of the universe shifted to a heliocentric view of the universe) • Facts • Unbiased information about reality • Are OBJECTIVE and unarguable

  7. Credibility of Resources Opinions Are judgments and views about reality Are SUBJECTIVE and arguable Bias Is the presentation of an issue from a single point of view Biased words have great power to persuade the unwary towards opinions they might not otherwise hold Ethnocentricity Whenever the behaviour of another society or ethic group is judged by the standards of one’s own society or group The risk faced by those who hold an ethnocentric point of view is that they may consider any other way of life but their own to be somewhat abnormal These people believe their culture to be superior

  8. Credibility of Resources Propaganda Systematic efforts to spread opinions and beliefs, especially by distortion and deception Ideas, facts or allegations spread deliberately to further one’s cause or to damage an opposing cause Doublespeak A language clouding our understanding of public issues to protect the people. Restricts personal thoughts and lets words become the spoken truths “Doublespeak smuggles uncomfortable thoughts into comfortable minds” Perspective To become aware of something or an understanding through ones own senses

  9. Credibility of Resources • When examining a source of information, ask yourself the following questions: • Who wrote the document and why did he or she write it? • Was the author or organization closely involved in the event? Could that have affected what was written? • What credentials does the author have to indicate that she or he is a reliable source? (do some research on the author) • What organization published the document? Does this organization have a particular point of view or agenda that would bias the information? • Are view laden adjectives used? • Do the arguments and evidence support only one side of an issue?

  10. What is your perspective? “The real voyage of discovery lies not in seeking new lands but in seeing with new yes”

  11. Credibility of Resources • The Paradigm Pig

  12. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see? • Look at your handout

  13. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  14. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  15. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  16. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  17. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  18. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  19. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  20. A Matter of Perspective • What do YOU see?

  21. Measuring YOUR Perspective Complete the questionnaire Record your answers in the appropriate column on the answer sheet Map your score on the chart

  22. Measuring YOUR Perspective • Perspective Assignment • “An individual’s point of view influences how he or she sees the world and solves problems.” • a. If a developer and an environmentalist were looking at a wetland area, how would each perceive it? • b. Pick an issue that was discussed so far. Show how three different individuals or groups with differing perspectives might suggest the issue be handled.

  23. Bias

  24. Bias • Read the article “Distinguishing Opinions from Facts”

  25. Bias in Maps-Map Projections A globe is the only accurate method to represent the earth, since the earth is a sphere. When features of a globe are transferred onto a flat surface, a map projection is created. There are hundreds of different ways to project the globe onto a flat surface therefore hundreds of different projections. Map projection are made on a computer using complex mathematical calculations.

  26. Bias in Maps-Map Projections Every map projection has certain characteristics that make it useful for a specific purpose. However, every map projection contains some type of distortion such as size and direction. You might have to enlarge one area and shrink another. This is because the globe is in 3D and a flat surface, such as a map, is 2D. Remember: what you see in a map is not, and cannot be, a true representation of the earth!

  27. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Cartographers try to preserve four things on a map. • Shape – an area’s shape is directly related to the actual shape in the real world • Area – an area’s size is proportional to its actual size in the real world • Direction – the lines of constant direction remain constant anywhere on a map • Distance – distance measured on a map are accurate

  28. Bias in Maps-Map Projections “A knowledgeable map reader, recognizing that a map is both a simplification and a distortion of reality, will look for clues to the cartographer’s purposes and biases.”

  29. Bias in Maps-Map Projections The Mercator projection has been used for navigation since 1569: because it gives true compass bearings between points. Compass direction along a straight line between 2 points on the map are accurate. It is most common

  30. Bias in Maps-Map Projections Where is Greenland, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, India. According to this map, rank the countries by size from largest to smallest. Using the atlas, rank the countries by size from largest to smallest. What differences do you see? What do these differences suggest about the Mercator Projection and about what it should and should not be used for?

  31. Bias in Maps-Map Projections Conclusion: the Mercator projection distorts the shape and size of regions countries near the equator appear smaller and those closer to the poles appear larger. In the past, this projections was widely used and became the standard for world maps. Still used by ships & pilots, in many atlases for school use This gives people the misconception about the actual size of the countries.

  32. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • The Peters projection • To correct the misconceptions promoted by the Mercator projection, Arno Peters, popularized an equal-area map projection in the early 1970s. • The Peters projection, like Mercator’s, is cylindrical, but it compresses the map near the poles • making the relative areas of any two regions on the map proportional to their relative areas on the globe.

  33. The Peters projection Mercator projection

  34. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Problem: Peters projection distorts the shape of the continents far more than Mercator, especially near the poles, • Canada and Russia appear to have been run through a wringer. • All cylindrical projections stretch out the regions near the poles; a cylindrical equal-area projection compensates for that not by removing that distortion but by adding a second one. • As a result, it isn’t a particularly elegant solution to the problem of accurately portraying the world.

  35. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Robinson Projection • In use from 1988 - 1998 by National Geographic • Minimizes the distortion of size & shape of most regions • Badly compresses & distorts the shape of countries in polar region

  36. Bias in Maps-Map Projections The Winkel Tripel projection was adopted by National Geographic in 1998, replacing Robinson as it better represents the size & shape of Earth features, especially in the polar regions Created by Oswald Winkel in 1921 The Winkel Tripel is a compromise between all types of distortions. It provides the best balance between size, shape, distance and direction. Prime Meridian & Equator are straight lines while all other parallels & meridians are curved

  37. Mercator vs Winkel Tripel

  38. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Gall Projection • Used in many textbooks • Shows area-accurate view of the world • Land mass size accurate, shape distorted

  39. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  40. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  41. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  42. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  43. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  44. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  45. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • Which one is “reality”?

  46. Example of how maps are used to alter perception, as propaganda Mercator projection Peters equal-area projection. During the Cold War, maps of “us” and “them” were often drawn to emphasize the threat represented by the USSR and its allies.Suppose you were a U.S. voter in 1960. Which of these would be most likely to make you support an increase in military spending? Robinson projection

  47. If the previous maps did not convince you, cartographers could always offer a new perspective, as Time’s cartographer, R. M. Chapin, did in 1952: From this perspective, it’s easy to imagine (red) armies sweeping across Western Europe.

  48. Bias in Maps-Map Projections • The Earth is a sphere (three-dimensional) and a map is flat (two-dimensional), so it is impossible to produce a map which combines the true shape, bearing, and distance. • ALL map projections misrepresent the surface of the Earth is some way. There are errors in distance and distortions in shapes.

  49. Bias in the Media • Every media story we see, hear, or read is the product of reporters, editors, camera crews, TV anchormen and women – people who hold points of view which may be different from our own; people who choose what events to cover, who to interview, and what words and pictures to use. • In other words, the media story which is presented to you is not necessarily “the truth,” but rather one person’s or a group of people’s idea about the truth.

  50. Bias in the Media • Our news is brought to us by a surprisingly small number of organizations. • 3 major TV news services use microwave and satellite to relay their camera footage to TV networks all over the world. • Viznews (British) • UPIIN (British-US) • CBS Newsfilm (owned by VIACOM) (American)

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