Chapter 2 Matter and Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2 Matter and Change

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  1. Chapter 2Matter and Change

  2. Intensive “type” of matter Hardness Boiling / Melting point Reactivity Extensive “amount” of matter Mass Volume Describing Matter

  3. States of Matter Solids • Definite shape • Definite volume • Not easily compressed • Particles packed closely together (vibrate)

  4. States of Matter Liquids • Indefinite shape • Definite volume • Not easily compressed • Particles free to flow past one another

  5. States of Matter Gases • Indefinite shape • Indefinite volume • Easily compressed • Freely moving particles that are far apart

  6. Matter Are all the particles alike? YES NO Pure Substance Mixture Are the particles one kind of atom? Are the particles well-mixed and mixed evenly? YES NO YES NO Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture Element (110+) Compound (millions) Is one substance dissolved in another? YES NO Solution Colloid

  7. Substances = definite composition (elements and compounds) vs.Mixtures = variable composition(homogeneous and heterogeneous)

  8. Substances: Elements Simplest form of matter Cannot be broken down by chemical processes Unique set of properties Carbon C Oxygen O Hydrogen H Nitrogen N Calcium Ca Iron Fe

  9. Substances: Compounds Contains two or more elements Chemically combined in a fixed proportion Can be broken down by chemical processes Water H2O Carbon dioxide CO2 Glucose C6H12O6

  10. Mixtures A physical blend of two or more components Chicken noodle soup Salad Cereal Air Stainless steel Ocean water

  11. Homogeneous “evenly” distributed Composition is uniform throughout Consists of a single phase Solutions Heterogeneous “unevenly” distributed Composition is not uniform throughout Consists of two or more phases Settling out or layers Mixtures

  12. Mixtures A physical blend of two or more components Chicken noodle soup heterogeneous Salad heterogeneous Cereal heterogeneous Air homogeneous Stainless steel homogeneous Ocean water homogeneous

  13. Your score is:

  14. Separating Mixtures differences in physical properties used to separate matter Filtration – separates a solid from liquid in a heterogeneous mixture • Distillation– boil liquid to a • vapor than then condenses • back to a liquid somewhere • else

  15. Physical Can be observed / measured without changing composition Hardness Color Conductivity Malleability Ductility State of matter Melting / boiling point Chemical Ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change Transfer of energy (heat, light, sound)…combustible or flammable Production of a gas…bubbles Formation of a precipitate (solid that settles out of solution)…corrosion Color change? Properties

  16. Physical Properties change but composition remains the same Can be reversible or irreversible Boil…freeze…melt… condense…break…split… grind…cut…crush…filtered…distillled *Often used to separate mixtures Chemical Produces matter with a different composition than the original matter Can be reversible or irreversible Heating…electrolysis… addition of reactive chemicals…. *Often used to separate compounds Changes

  17. Law of conservation of mass Applies to both physical or chemical changes Matter is neither created or destroyed Mass is conserved: mass of reactants = mass of products 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY  C6H12O6 + 6O2 + ATP