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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION PowerPoint Presentation
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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION

CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION

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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION

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  1. CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION • Generation vs. Demand: • Demand growing 3% per year • New Generation more difficult to build due to Environmental Factors: • Air Emissions for Fossil Fuels • Land and Water Impacts with greenfield sites • Outlet Transmission Lines nearly impossible to build or upgrade (NIMBY)

  2. Generation • Large, Centralized Plants (Old Way) • Small, Distributed Plants (New Way) • Also, Site Renewable Generation where it makes Sense (and Profit)

  3. Large Plants • Environmental Issues • Fossil Fuels • Location/Siting

  4. Large Plants (Cont.) • New Ideas: • “Clean Coal” • Wind, • Solar, • Geothermal, • Biomass • Oceanic Thermal Energy

  5. Clean Coal • Coal Gasification (Combined Cycle) - Low Emmissions • Could Happen on Iron Range (Excelsior Project)

  6. WIND • Wind Generators currently very popular • More and more Cost Effective • Not a Cure-All - never windy when you need it most

  7. Wind Farm • Current Standard – 1.75 MW WTG on 80 meter Towers • Energy cost now in the 4 cents/KWH range • OFF-SHORE has great potential

  8. NE Minnesota Wind Data

  9. Typical Service Drop to WTG

  10. NEG Micon NM82

  11. Solar • Photvoltaics • Electricity Directly from Sunlight • Low Conversion efficiency • Fairly High Cost • Amorphous Designs could be applied anywhere • Solar Thermal - Solar One • Could yet show some promise • ONLY WHEN THE SUN SHINES

  12. Geothermal • Hot Water from the Earth • Use the Hot Water or Flash to Steam • Currently 2700 MW capacity in US • Capacity growing at 9% worldwide • Excellent for Home Use - Heat Pumps

  13. Binary-Cycle Plant (Geothermal)

  14. OTEC • Extract “solar” heat from Ocean Water • Flash it to Steam for Turbine/Generator • Can be combined with DeSalination • Costly

  15. Typical Energy Costs for Various Generation Sources • Type: Installed Cost: Energy Cost: • Fuel Cells $15,000-20,000/kW 15-20 cents/kwh • Solar - PV Cells $6,000-8,000/kW 12-15 cents/kwh • Geothermal $5,000-10,000/kW 8-10 cents/kwh • Biomass $2,000-2,500/kW 3-5 cents/kwh • Wind $1,000-2,000/kW 3-5 cents/kwh • Natrl Gas (Turbine) $1,500-1,800/kW 2-4 cents/kwh • Coal $1,500-2,000/kW 1.5-2 cents/kwh • Hydro $2,000-3,000/kW 0.2-0.5 cents/kwh

  16. Distributed Generation • Make Electricity where and when needed: • Neighborhood • Commercial Center • Industrial Park • Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biomass • Fuel Cells • MicroTurbines

  17. Fuel Cells • Most common type: PEM Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane • Strips Electrons from Hydrogen to make Electricity • Safety/Cost • Where to get H2?? • H2 Energy Density

  18. Microturbines • Run on Natural gas – Short Sighted? • 30-50 kilowatt Designs • Create both Electricity and Hot Water • Small businesses, collection of homes

  19. DEMAND SIDE • Conservation Through: • Market Pricing • Efficient Products

  20. Market Pricing • Energy Prices becoming De-Regulated • New Equipment to Automate Pricing: • Smart Meters • Smart Appliances

  21. Smart Meters • Talks to Electric Company • Records Hourly Prices • Tells Appliances what current Price is • Shops Around for a Better Rate?

  22. Efficient Products • Smart Appliances run only when energy is cheapest, talk to each other • Superconductors • Cars

  23. Superconducting Motors • Extremely Efficient – Zero Electric Losses • Very High Torque - 140X increase in Power Density • Costly? • Not very Rugged – Bismuth-Cu Ceramic Tape • US Navy Loves Them

  24. Other Superconductors • Transformers • TransmissionLines • Potential Savings… • Between 5 and 10% of all Electricity Generated is lost in Transformers and T-Lines

  25. Cars • EVs - Electric Vehicles • Biggest Problem is Energy Density • Battery Powered - Poor Range/Heavy • Fuel Cell Pwrd - Hydrogen is volatile, has poor energy density and delivery system in early development, LNG has emissions • Hybrids - LEVs • Just appearing on Market • Good “Next Step” • 35 MPG SUV: – Ford ’05 Escape

  26. The HYDROGEN ECONOMY • The US DOE has Millions of Dollars to award in Hydrogen Fuel Research • BENEFITS: • Burns Clean • Not a Fossil Fuel • DRAWBACKS: • Volatile (but so are many other fuels) • Low Energy Density • Not Available in Pure Form

  27. How to Get Hydrogen • Hydrogen currently produced by two methods: • Steam Reforming (Heating Fossil Fuels to release hydrogen) • Electrolysis (splitting water molecules with an electric current) • New Methods: Photoelectrochemical (PEC) – PV cells, immersed directly in water, doped with organic chemicals to increase efficiency, make hydrogen with sunlight Photobiological – Using the inherent photosynthetic capability of bacteria to break water down

  28. CONCLUSIONS • More of the Same Old Stuff (with new tech) • More and More New Stuff • Greater Emphasis on Environmental Factors • Conservation is Key • Wireless, Wireless, Wireless – Improved communications will lead to better efficiencies

  29. WEB References • National Renewable Energy Labs • http://www.nrel.gov/ • Electric Power Research Institute • http://www.epri.com/ • US Dept. of Energy • http://www.energy.gov/ or www.eere.gov • Electric Vehicles • http://www.evworld.com/