First Aid Grade 10 First Aid Introduction & Choking Quiz= 30% Participation/Practical= 70%
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnAOmxnQJsM Disclaimer: DO NOT DO THIS!
Introduction to first aid • Objectives of First Aid: • Preserve Life • Prevent the illness or Injury from becoming worse • Promote Recovery • (3 P’s-Preserve, Prevent, Promote)
Who is a First aider? • First aider is someone who takes charge of an emergency scene and gives first aid. • First Aiders do not diagnose or treat injuries or illness (except perhaps wen they are very minor) • First Aiders suspect injuries and illnesses and gives first aid
What can a first aider do? • -Give First Aid • but they can also… • -protect the casualties belongings • -keep unnecessary people away • -reassure family and friends of the casualty • -Clean up the emergency scene and work to correct any unsafe conditions that may have cause the injury in the first place
First aid and the law • Two legal situations where you can perform First Aid: • 1) May give first aid as a part of your job (ex. Lifeguard) • 2) Passerby who see an emergency and wishes to help • Once you begin to give first aid you are obligated to use reasonable skill and care based on your level of training
Safe first aid • Review: • #1 rule: Give first aid Safely! • 3 types of Risk: • 1) Energy source that causes the original Injury • 2) Hazards from secondary or external factors • 3) Hazard of the rescue or first aid procedures • Personal Protective Equipment • -Gloves • -Hand Washing • -Disposable Mask (for CPR
Emergency scene management(ESM) • 4 Steps • Scene Survey • Primary Survey • Secondary Survey • Ongoing casualty care • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxDOEQXRD8Q • (Note: Steps in CPR are different)
Choking • A person chokes when the airway is partly or completely blocked and airflow to the lungs is reduced or cut off. • Causes of choking: • Foreign objects (ex. Button, coin, food, toys) • Unconscious casualty (ex. Tongue falls back in throat while lying down, or saliva, blood, vomit pools in the throat) • Injury or Illness (injury to the throat area that causes swelling, allergic reaction, or asthma)
Choking • Choking is a life threatening emergency. • Signs of Choking: • -Grabbing the throat
Steps to Follow for Choking • Begin ESM • If the casualty can cough forcefully, speak or breathe, do not touch them. Ask them to cough up the object. If you believe it to be severe, ask if they are choking • Give 5 Back Blows • Stand behind them ready to support them if they become unconscious. Find correct Hand position and give Abdominal thrusts • …..
Abdominal thrust position • -Find the top of the hip bones • -Place a foot between the casualty’s feet for a solid position • -Place your fist midline, just above the other hand • -Hold the fist with the other hand and press inward/upward with a sudden forceful thrust- this is an abdominal thrust
Steps to Follow for Choking • 5) Keep giving abdominal thrusts (5 Thrusts to 5 Back Blows) until either the object is removed or the casualty becomes unconscious. • 6) If the casualty is unconscious lower them to the floor, send someone for help • 7) Open the mouth and look for any foreign matter. If you see something, remove it. Open airway and assess breathing • 8) Try to breathe into the causualty’s mouth • 9) Begin Chest Compressions (30) • 10) Repeat Looking in the mouth, attempt to ventilate and give chest compressions
Conscious & Unconscious Choking (Adult) • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DE45ks9miIw • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5kmsKNvKAvU • Rescue Breathing: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXOfdMzJiaw
Self-Help for Choking • Don’t panic. Do not Isolate yourself! • Try to forcefully cough up the object. Do not let any one slap you in the back, it could force the object further into your airway. • Use either your hands or a piece of furniture • -Give yourself Abdominal thrusts • -Use a solid object like the back of a chair, table, edge of a counter. Position yourself so the object is just above your hips. Press forcefully to produce an abdominal thrust.
Exit Slip • What are the 3 P’s (objectives of First Aid)? • What are the 4 steps to Emergence Scene Management (ESM)? • How do you find where to place your hands for Abdominal thrusts?