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Note to the Instructor: PowerPoint Presentation
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Note to the Instructor:

Note to the Instructor:

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Note to the Instructor:

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  1. Note to the Instructor: • The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and key terms of Chapter 5 in Psychology in Action (8e).Before presentations, you can delete these instructor information slides by simply pressing “delete” on your keyboard. • If you prefer a different background color or design, click on the upper right corner under “design.” • To further personalize and enrich your PowerPoint slides, check the Psychology in Action Instructor Resource site for additional video clips, figures, tables, key terms, etc. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  2. Note to the Instructor (Continued): • Each topic listed on the Lecture Outline slide (#4) has been “linked” for your convenience. When in the “presentation mode,” simply click on the topic and you will link directly to the slide(s) of interest. Note that the last slide of each topic includes a “home” icon that will return you to the original Lecture Outline slide. This feature enables you to present chapter topics in any order. Ease of navigation and flexibility in presentation are key elements of a PowerPoint in Action. Enjoy! ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  3. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation • Chapter 5: States of Consciousness • Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  4. Lecture Overview • Understanding Consciousness • Sleep and Dreams • Psychoactive Drugs • Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  5. Understanding Consciousness • Consciousness (an organism’s awareness of its own self and surroundings) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  6. Understanding Consciousness • Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  7. Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms • Circadian Rhythms (biological changes occurring on a 24-hour cycle) • Our energy level, mood, learning, and alertness all vary throughout the day. • Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the pineal gland regulate these changes. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  8. Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms (Continued) • Disrupted circadian rhythms, through shift work, jet lag,and sleep deprivation may cause mood alterations, reduced concentration and motivation, increased irritability, lapses in attention, and reduced motor skills. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  9. What happens to humans and other animals while we sleep and dream? Sleep and Dreams ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  10. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep • NREM (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: • Stage 1(lightest sleep) • Stage 2 (deeper sleep) • Stages 3 and 4 (deepest sleep) • REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep: • Light sleep--also called paradoxical sleep ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  11. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) • NREM (non-REM) sleep • Includes Stages 1 through 4 • Lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse and breathing,and occasional, simple dreams • Serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  12. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) • REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) sleep • Also called paradoxical sleep • High-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, paralysis of the large muscles, and dreaming • Serves a biological need and may help with learning and consolidating new memories ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  13. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  14. How scientists study sleep (note the EEG, EOG, and EMG measuring devices) Sleep and Dreams: Research ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  15. Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  16. Can you identify which photo was taken while this cat was in REM sleep? NREM and REM Sleep in Cats ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  17. Sleep and Dreams: Over the Life Span ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  18. Sleep and Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  19. Sleep and Dreams: Why Do We Sleep? • Repair/restoration theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities • Evolutionary/circadian theory:sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators • Cognitive theory:dreams are an important part of information processing of everyday experiences ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  20. Sleep and Dreams: Why Do We Dream? • Psychoanalytic theory: dreams are disguised symbols (manifestversuslatent content) of repressed desires and anxieties • Biological theory: (activation-synthesis hypothesis) dreams are simple by-products of random stimulation of brain cells ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  21. Sleep and Dreams: Sleep Disorders Two major categories: • Dyssomnias (problems in amount, timing, and quality of sleep) • Parasomnias (abnormal disturbances during sleep) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  22. Sleep and Dreams: Three Forms of Dyssomnias • Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early • Sleep apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep • Narcolepsy: sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  23. Sleep and Dreams: Narcolepsy in Dogs ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  24. Sleep and Dreams: Two Forms of Parasomnias • Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep • Night terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  25. Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms 1. Psychoactive Drugs(chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception) 2. Drug Abuse(drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others) 3. Addiction (compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity) 4. Psychological Dependence(desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  26. Psychoactive Drugs: Important Terms (Continued) • Physical Dependence(bodily processes have been so modified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms) 6. Withdrawal(discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs) 7. Tolerance(decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  27. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories 1.Depressants:act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  28. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) • Depressants--Alcohol’s Effects ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  29. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  30. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) 2.Stimulants:act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  31. A hidden danger of stimulants. The key ingredient in methamphetamine destroys the teeth and gums of chronic users. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  32. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) 3.Opiates:act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  33. Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories (Continued) 4.Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  34. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  35. Psychoactive Drugs: How They Work • Step 1). Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters. • Step 2). Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters. • Step 3). Alter the reception of neurotransmitters. • Step 4). Change the deactivation (block the reuptake or break-down) of excess neurotransmitters. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  36. How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Step 3: Agonists vs. Antagonists) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  37. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  38. Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness • Meditation(group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  39. Hypnosis (trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus) Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  40. Therapeutic uses of hypnosis: treatment of chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy. Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  41. Hypnosis: Myths and Controversies Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness • Forced hypnosis • Unethical behavior • Exceptional memory • Superhuman strength • Fakery ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  42. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation • End of Chapter 5: States of Consciousness • Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)