Download
shoulda woulda coulda n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda

Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda

460 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda The Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Process

  2. Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making OUTCOMES Systems Data Practices Supporting Student Behavior

  3. Objectives of this session • Shoulda … • Systems to support consistent application of the law by staff • Woulda … • Practices including FBA to support students with challenging behavior • Coulda … • Data to make decisions and monitor progress

  4. Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS) Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)

  5. Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS) Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)

  6. School Improvement Whole School Academic Behavior Effective School Organization Classroom Effective Instructional Practices Culturally Responsive Instruction Intensive, Individual Interventions • Tutoring • Academic Remediation Plans • Specially Designed Instruction Intensive, Individual Interventions • Functional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention Planning Effective Instructional Practices Struggling Students Culturally Responsive Practices Individuals Progress Monitoring Targeted Group Interventions • Small group instruction • Focused academic help sessions Targeted Group Interventions • Social Skills instruction • Reinforcement of specific skills • Group Behavioral Strategies • Classroom Coaching Consider- ation for Eligibility EC Behavioral Group Strategies Universal Design/ Differentiated Instruction Related Services Positive School Climate Specially Designed Instruction FBA/BIP Mental Health Assistance Behavior Interventions Universal Interventions • Effective instructional practices • Recognition of academic achievement • Culturally responsive practices • Data-based decision-making • Parent & Community Partnerships Universal Interventions • School-wide rules and procedures • Systematic reinforcement • Social Skills Instruction • Culturally responsive practices • Data-based decision-making • Parent & Community Partnerships Effective Staff Development Mental Health Services Positive Classroom Management Focused Research-based Academic Instruction Data Based Decision Making Ongoing Screening and Assessment Classroom Coaching and Consultation Parent and Community Partnerships

  7. Tier IV IEP Consideration Tier III Consultation with the Problem Solving Action Team Tier II Consultation With Other Resources Intensive Intervention 5% Tier I Consultation Between Teachers-Parents Strategic Interventions 15% Core Curriculum 80% How do PBIS & RtI match up?

  8. Shoulda … Known IDEA 2004 NC Policies Governing Services for Children with Disabilities Shoulda had a SYSTEM

  9. Authority of School Personnel • School personnel may remove a student with a disability from his/her current placement for up to 10cumulative school days in one academic year for any violation of school code of conduct. • These removals may be to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension (to the extent those alternatives are applied to children without disabilities). • Services are not required during the first ten cumulative days of removal unless services are provided to students without disabilities. NC 1504-2.1 (b)(1)

  10. Authority of School Personnel • School personnel may also impose additional removals of the child for not more than 10 consecutive school daysin the same school year for separate incidents of misconduct, as long as those removals do not constitute a change of placement (location of and access to services). NC1504-2.1 (b)(1)

  11. “Change of Placement” • Changing a student with a disability’s educationalplacement (continuum of services) may only be made by an IEP team. • Removal of a child with a disability from the child’s current educational placement (location of and access to services) by school personnel may lead to a disciplinarychange of placement.

  12. When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Scenario 1: A disciplinary change in placement occurs when a student is removed for more than 10 consecutive school days: NC 1504-2.7 (a)(1)

  13. When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Scenario 2: A disciplinary change in placement occurs if the child has been subjected to a series of removals that constitute a pattern – • Because the series of removals total more than 10 school days in a school year; • Because the child’s behavior is substantially similar to the child’s behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals; AND • Because of such additional factors as the length of each removal, the total amount of time the child has been removed and the proximity of the removals to one another. NC 1504-2.7 (a)(2)

  14. When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Important Information: • The LEA determines on a case by case basis whether a pattern of removals constitutes a change in placement • This determination is subject to review through due process and judicial proceedings. NC 1504-2.7 (b)(1)(2)

  15. When imposing discipline for a violation of the student code of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask, “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?”

  16. “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” If the answer is “NO”: • School personnel can proceed with the removal. • Services must be provided. • School personnel, in consultation with at least one of the child’s teachers, determine what services will be provided. • A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be either developed to address the behavior or if a BIP has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary. NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)

  17. “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” If the answer is “YES”: • A manifestation meeting must occur within 10 school days. • On the day school personnel decide to remove the student, they must issue the LEA disciplinary removal form, Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a), and the Handbook on Parents’ Rights. • Services must be provided immediately upon removal. • The student’s IEP team must determine these services. NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1) • A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be developed to address the behavior or if one has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary. NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)

  18. “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” If the answer is “YES”, can the student be removed pending the manifestation determination meeting? • The law is silent in this circumstance. • However, it is clear that services during the removal must be determined by the IEP team and be designed so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the annual goals set out in the child’s IEP and receive a FBA and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior.NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)(5)

  19. Services-No Change in Placement For subsequent suspensions of not more than 10 school days that are not a change of placement, school personnel in consultation with at least one of the child’s teachers determine what services are needed so as toenable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and progress toward meeting the goals set out in the child’s IEP, and receive a FBA, and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior. NC 1504-2(d)(1)

  20. Services-Change in Placement If it is determined that a removal or series of removals constitutes a change of placement, the IEP team determines appropriate services.

  21. If school personnel determine the removal will constitute a change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Handbook on Parents’ Rights with the LEA disciplinary action form. This notifies the parent a manifestation meeting will occur.

  22. REVIEW: Removals Resulting in a Change in Placement • Parents must be notified and given full explanation of procedural safeguards (LEA Disciplinary Action Form, DEC 5a & Handbook on ParentsRights). • The DEC 5a serves as notice to attend the meeting. • The manifestation team (like that of the IEP team) must convene within 10 school days to determine if the behavior was a manifestation of the child’s disability. • If the student begins the removal (suspension) prior to the manifestation determination, services must be determined by the IEP team.

  23. Woulda … Used Best Practice “Standards of good professional practice dictate a problem solving approach to managing behaviors in the school” (Crone &Horner, 2003) Woulda utilized PRACTICES!

  24. Functional Behavior Assessments

  25. Functional BehavioralAssessment “A process for gathering information used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support” (O’Neill et al., 1997) • Operational definition of behavior • Identification of events that are functionally related to behavior • Identification of consequences that maintain behavior • Hypothesis about function of behavior • Direct observation to confirm/support hypothesis

  26. Four Basic Recommendations • Never stop doing what is already working • Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect • Avoid defining a large number of goals • Do a small number of things well • Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible • Collect and use data for decision making

  27. Three Important Themes • Create systems, not just programs, to support all students • Earlier rather than later • Evidence, not opinion

  28. Steps for Conducting a FBA andDeveloping a BIP Identify the strengths of the student. 2. Identify the problem behavior. 3. Gather Information. 4. Generate a hypothesis statement. 5. Build a “Competing Behavior Pathway” to identify possible elements of a Behavior Intervention Plan. 6. Design & Evaluate a Behavioral Intervention Plan. 7. Plan for effective implementation of the Behavior Intervention Plan. 8. Monitor regularly and modify based on observed progress. Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003

  29. Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Diagram Behavior(FBA Process)

  30. Setting Events No Teacher contact for 5 minutes Triggering Antecedents Small group or independent work Problem Behavior Out-of-seat Off-task Maintaining Consequences Teacher Attention Designing Functional Interventions: Rasheed • When Rasheed is left unattended by the teacher for longer than 5 minutes (setting event), and he is given independent or small group work (antecedent) he leaves his seat/area (behavior) to obtain adult attention (function).

  31. Desired Alternative Maintaining Consequences Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Acceptable Alternative Define Alternative or Competing Behavior

  32. Setting Events No Teacher contact for 5 minutes Triggering Antecedents Small group or independent work Problem Behavior Out-of-seat Off-task Maintaining Consequences Teacher Attention Desired Behavior On-task Maintaining Consequences Work Completion & Grades Acceptable Alternative Ask for help/ Recruit feedback

  33. DESIGNING FUNCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS Desired Alternative Maintaining Consequences Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Behavior Teaching Consequence Manipulations Acceptable Alternative

  34. Event • Manipulations • Mentoring • Program • Schedule • independent • or small • group work • after whole • group • activities in- • volving • active • participation • and group • response • Antecedent • Manipulations • Check in frequently with • Rasheed during • work periods. • Precorrect Rasheed on appropriate way to ask for teacher help/attention • Design lessons to provide more whole group response/ active participation • Behavior • Teaching • Re-teach class rules and routines that address ‘in seat’ and ‘class movement’ • Teach Rasheed how to request teacher help / attention • Teach Rasheed how to tolerate delays in getting attention • Consequences • Manipulations • Ignore out of seat requests for assistance • Respond immediately if he asks appropriately for teacher attention Intervention & Support Strategies

  35. What if we can’t figure out what the function of the behavior is?

  36. Assessing Function • Look for patterns of behavior, even very diverse behaviors can serve the same function • Don’t see a pattern? May need more data • Utilize functional behavior checklists

  37. So how does Functional Behavior Assessment align with the Tiers?

  38. What does Tier 1 look like for PBIS • Is an FBA completed at this level?

  39. What does Tier II look like for PBIS? • Chart behavior to determine function and develop hypothesis • Make contact with team that manages Secondary PBIS practices if any of those practices meet a functional need • Design a plan that incorporates existing intervention options and behavior remediation

  40. Tier II Intervention • Developed by teacher, parent, consultant with some expertise in area of student need • Consider Tier I information • Define/analyze/problem • Develop hypothesis • Collect baseline data • Create/implement plan (measureable Goal) • Evaluate • Decide next steps • Continue/modify/discontinue plan • Move to Tier III

  41. What does Tier III look like for PBIS? • More complex team-implemented process • Requires team member with behavioral background • Includes (peer-referenced) observations, and record review • BIP identifies set of replacement behaviors to be taught • BIP takes into account antecedent and consequence strategies, as well as contextual fit • Evaluation planned several weeks after implementation

  42. Tier III Intervention • Team approach • Consider Tier I, II information • Define/analyze/problem • Develop Hypothesis/ Validate performance with data collection • Create/implement plan (Goal and measurement strategy) • Evaluate (amount of progress/discrepancy) • Decide next steps • Continue/modify/discontinue plan • Move to Tier IV

  43. What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? • NOT tied to special ed referral (but could be part) • Most intensive – still occurs as a tertiary intervention • Functional analysis requires in-depth and lengthy data collection • Includes direct observations & systematic manipulation of the environment to confirm hypothesis

  44. What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? • Requires behavioral expertise • School teams strongly encouraged to include agencies and other community partners involved with the family (Systems of Care, Child & Family Team) • BIP structured to intervene at each possible level

  45. What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? • BIP plans intensive teaching of replacement behavior, generalization strategies and who will teach • BIP defines reinforcement & consequence strategies • Evaluation planned to determine success of BIP & any modifications necessary to make it more efficient or effective • May require crisis plan to be put in place during data collection and planning

  46. Tier IV Intervention • Re-initiate problem-solving process • Add/modify intervention • Initiate referral to IEP team

  47. Coulda … Utilized tools to collect data and document progress Made a difference Coulda used DATA to make a difference in the success of a student with challenging behavior

  48. PBIS Tools for Tier II • Behavior Charting • Data Collection: • DBRs • Checklists • System of Secondary Interventions

  49. Data Collection: Checklists • Motivation Assessment Scale • Project FACILE

  50. Data Collection: DBRs • Daily Behavior Report = DBR • The DBR involves a brief rating of target behavior over a specified period of time • Example in toolkit • Additional examples at http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/behrptcd.php