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Emerging Nanotechnology Devices

Emerging Nanotechnology Devices

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Emerging Nanotechnology Devices

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  1. Emerging Nanotechnology Devices

  2. Outline • Introduction • Nano Scale MOSFET • Carbon Nanotube FETs • Solid State Quantum Devices • Molecular Electronics • Challenges and the Current State of the Art • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • Feature size nearing the physical limits • Fabrication process approaching limits • Power consumption – a concern • Quantum effects need to be accounted for • Solution? Nanotechnology • We present an overview of new devices and outline some open problems.

  4. CNFETs Molecular RTD CNT arrays Self assembled CNT using DNA SETs Quantum Dots DNA strands as Bits Molecules in Solution DNA self assembly Molecular orientations as Bits What is Nanotechnology? • Switching devices of nanometer (below 100nm, typically 10nm) dimensions define nanotechnology. Emerging Nanotechnology Solutions Emerging Nanotechnology Drivers Logic (Our Focus) Nano CMOS Memory Fabrication

  5. Computing Devices Solid State Devices Molecular Devices CMOS Devices Quantum Devices Nano CMOS Quantum Dot RTD CNFET SET Electro- mechanical Electro- chemical Quantum Photoactive

  6. Nano-Scale MOSFET Photo Courtesy: Fujitsu Labs • Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor • Three terminal device • Source, gate and drain • Vg controls the conduction from source to drain • Half thickness of the gate is called “Feature size λ” • Current feature sizes in production – 90nm (Intel Pentium 5) • Demonstrated feature sizes up to 20nm (IBM).

  7. Challenges • Difficulties • High electric fields • Power supply vs. threshold voltage • Heat dissipation • Interconnect delays • Vanishing bulk properties • Shrinkage of gate oxide layer • Too many problems to continue miniaturization as physical limits approach • Proposed solutions are short term • Open Problems • Improve lithographic precision (eBeam) • Explore new materials (GaAs, SiGe, etc.) • As a long term goal explore new devices

  8. Outline • Introduction • Nano scale MOSFET • Carbon Nanotube FETs • Solid State Quantum Devices • Molecular Electronics • Challenges and current state of the art • Conclusions

  9. Carbon Nanotubes • Carbon nanotubes are long meshed wires of carbon • Longest tubes up to 1mm long and few nanometers thick made by IBM.

  10. Electrical Properties of CNT Carbon nanotubes can be metallic or semiconductor depending on their chirality. Chiral Vector C is defined as the vector from one open end of the tube to the other after it is rolled. If (n-m) is divisible by 3, the tube is metallic If (n-m) is not divisible by 3, the tube is semiconducting. C = n a1 + m a2

  11. Carbon Nanotube FET Courtesy: IBM • CNT can be used as the conducting channel of a MOSFET. • These new devices are very similar to the CMOS FETs. • All CNFETs are pFETs by nature. • nFETs can be made through • Annealing • Doping • Very low current and power consumption • Although tubes are 3nm thick CNFETs are still the size of the contacts, about 20nm.

  12. CNT Fabrication • Controlling the conductivity of the tubes (Constructive Destruction) • All tubes laid on the contact • Metallic tubes are destroyed • Controlling diameter of the tube • Start with MWNTs. • Destroy the outer layers one by one to reduce diameter. • Placing exactly at the required location. Yet to be demonstrated convincingly to exploit complete advantage using Lithography. • Using DNA for self assembly • Demonstrated by Techion-Israel very recently (Nov’2003). Courtesy: IBM Courtesy: IBM

  13. Summary and Challenges • CNTs are flexible tubes that can be made conducting or semiconducting. • Nano-scale, strong and flexible. • Challenges: • Multilevel interconnects not available • Chip density still limited to the density of contacts. • Tube density not entirely exploited • Fabrication is still a stochastic process • Alternatives to gold contacts need to be found. • Open Problems and Initiatives: • Fabrication using DNA for self assembly (Technion-Israel; Science, Nov 2003) • Memory array of nanotubes using junctions as bit storages (Lieber at Harvard) • Using nanotube arrays to make computing elements (DeHon at Caltech) • Fabricate FPGAs using CNFETs and STM (Avouris at IBM)

  14. Outline • Introduction • Nano scale MOSFET • Carbon Nanotube FETs • Solid State Quantum Devices • Molecular Electronics • Challenges and current state of the art • Conclusions

  15. Solid State Quantum Devices Occupied Energy Levels Occupied Energy Levels Energy Barrier Barrier Allowed Energy Levels • Quantum effects used to build devices. • Electrons confined on an island • Island can be created by using different band-gap devices in succession • Island has certain allowed energy levels • If allowed energy levels are filled then the device is in conduction • Types of devices • Resonant Tunneling Diode (RTD) • Single Electron Transistor (SET) • Quantum Dot (QD) • Blocking conduction due to unavailable energy levels is called coulomb blockade Distance Source Island Drain 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  16. Principle of Conduction Conduction Conduction • Conduction can occur by • Increasing source to drain voltage • Applying Gate Bias Occupied Conduction Band Occupied Conduction Band Energy Energy Allowed Energy Levels Allowed Energy Levels Occupied Conduction Band Gate bias Source Island Drain Source Island Drain 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  17. Single Electron Transistors (SET) Source Cg Gate • Conductance changes in spurts as energy levels are discrete • To go from conducting to non-conducting stage, it requires voltage sufficient for one electron to cross • This is achieved by applying gate bias enough for just one electron charge -- hence the name SET • Bias required for conduction is coulomb gap voltage • Same device can act as pFET or nFET based on the barrier strength • Applications: • Extra sensitive charge meters • CMOS style conducting devices Island Drain 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  18. Quantum Dots and Arrays Dot occupied by Electron Inter-dot Barriers • 3-dimensional island tunneling barrier • State determined by presence of electron and not by conduction. • Quantum cell array (QCA) is a lattice of these cells with 2 electrons confined. • Occupied electrons are furthest from each other due to repulsive forces. Dot unoccupied Outer Barriers Courtesy: vortex.tn.tudelft.nl/ grkouwen/kouwen.html 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  19. Quantum Cellular Automata 1 1 • 2 states – “1” and “0”. • Electrostatic interaction of nearby cells makes the bits flip. • Input to the cell is by manipulating the Inter-dot barriers. • Logic gates can be constructed. QCA Wire “1” “0” Stable 1 0 Unstable QCA Inverter

  20. Summary and Challenges • Summary • Electrons confined on an island. • Allowed energy levels are discrete and allow the device to fluctuate between conducting and non-conducting states. • SET – 2 dimensional device with gate bias control. • QD – device with electron presence as state. • QCA – Arrays of QDs used for computing. • Challenges • Background charge may offset states (noise sensitivity) • Sensitivity of tunneling current to barrier width (lithographic accuracy) • Sensitivity to barrier widths • Cryogenic operation • Open Problems • Lithographic methods with guaranteed accuracy • Self assembly of systems • Background charge elimination • Synthesis and verification techniques needed • Testing of these devices as stuck-at models may be inadequate. 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  21. Outline • Introduction • Nano scale MOSFET • Carbon Nanotube FETs • Solid State Quantum Devices • Molecular Electronics • Challenges and current state of the art • Conclusions 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  22. Molecular Electronics • Incentives • Molecules are nano-scale • Self assembly is achievable • Very low-power operation • Highly uniform devices • Quantum Effect Devices • Building quantum wells using molecules • Electromechanical Devices • Using mechanical switching of atoms or molecules • Electrochemical Devices • Chemical interactions to change shape or orientation • Photoactive Devices • Light frequency changes shape and orientation. 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  23. Molecular Electronics Thiol Acetylene linkage Benzene ring • Mechanical synthesis • Molecules aligned using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) • Fabrication done molecule by molecule using STM • Chemical synthesis • Molecules aligned in place by chemical interactions • Self assembly • Parallel fabrication 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  24. An Atomic Relay 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  25. Summary and Challenges • Summary • Parallel self assembly • Very regular structures • Many alternatives proposed but inherent problems • Very low energy operation • Challenges • Signal restoration and gain • Finding non-interacting chemicals • Chemical reactions stochastic with by-products • Slow operating speeds • Open Problems • Self assembling of devices • Increased speed of operation • Guaranteed switching of molecules (HP- UCLA devices) • Simulation models and CAD 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design

  26. Conclusion • CMOS technology is approaching saturation – problems in the nanometer range • Several new possibilities emerging • Carbon nanotubes (CNT) • Single-electron transistor (SET) and quantum dots (QD) • Molecular computing devices 17th Int'l Conference on VLSI Design