Figurative Language Yo mamma…
Hyperbole an extravagant statement or figure of speech not intended to be taken literally; an exaggeration • Ex: At the circus, they serve mile-high ice-cream cones • --Extravagant statement, “mile-high ice-cream cones,” is an extreme exaggeration, not meant literally. YOUR MAMA IS SO UGLY. SHE ENTERED AN UGLY CONTEST AND THEY SAID, “SORRY. NO PROFESSIONALS.”
Idiom phrase that does not mean exactly what it says and can’t be taken literally (NOT EXAGGERATED) • Ex: I know you are angry, but you will need to bite your tongue when speaking to the principal. • -- The independent words “bite your tongue” literally mean to chew on your tongue; here, the entire phrase means for you to be quiet when speaking to the principal. YOU’RE BATTING 1000 TODAY!
Simile Uses like or as to compare two unlike things • Ex: The ocean waves were like a lullaby putting me to sleep. • --Two unlike things, ocean waves and a lullaby, are being compared using “like.” HER SMILE WAS LIKE A SUMMER’S BREEZE.
Personification Gives human qualities, such as actions or feelings, to an object, an idea, or an animal • Ex: The tired roof sagged down through the living room. • --“Tired” is something a person can feel, but not something an object, like a roof, can feel. HIS EYES SPOKE TO ME FROM ACROSS THE CROWDED ROOM.
Alliteration the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds at the beginnings of words. • Ex: The nervous nurses nearly left the operating room. • ---The “n” is repeated to enhance the sound of the sentence. “HEY, YOU WOOD CHUCKS! QUIT CHUCKING MY WOOD!”
Metaphor a direct comparison between two unlike things (does NOT use like or as.) Metaphors often use “is,” “was,” “are,” and “were” to compare. • Ex: The test in Math today was a breeze. • ---two unlike things, a test and a breeze, are being directly compared to each other. THE RIVER WAS A BLACK RIBBON WINDING THROUGH THE DREARY FOREST.
Onomatopoeia is the use of words or phrases whose sounds suggest their meanings. • Ex: boom, meow, pow, bang, woof, splash, crack, gush I KNEW WHEN I HEARD THE PIERCING CRACK, SOMETHING HAD TO BE WRONG.
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE MATCHING • HARRY POTTER FOUND HE WAS HISSING, SPEAKING PARCEL TONGUE. • MY MOTHER WANTED ME TO WALK MY MONKEY. • PRESTON LOOKED LIKE A MUMMY. • WORRY RESTED HEAVILY ON MY SOUL. • THE MOON IS A BRILLIANT FLASHLIGHT, ILLUMINATING THE EVENING SKY. • AMANDA HAS A MILLION THINGS TO DO TODAY. • WE WERE KINGS AND QUEENS THAT NIGHT! • IDIOM • HYPERBOLE • SIMILE • METAPHOR • ONOMATOPOEIA • PERSONIFICATION • ALLITERATION
Sentence Patterns AND THEIR PROPER NAMES
SUBJECTS AND PREDICATES SUBJECTS: WHO/WHAT THE SENTENCE IS ABOUT Australia is one of the most spectacular countries in the world. Joy and her sisters sang for the congregation. Oscar and Cathy fed and groomed the dog. PREDICATE: WHAT THE SUBJECT IS DOING/IS/IS LIKE
SIMPLE HAS A COMPLETE SUBJECT, COMPLETE PREDICATE, AND EXPRESSES A COMPLETE THOUGHT I bought peaches, pears, and broccoli. My friend Joel will play in the volleyball tournament. ALSO KNOWN AS A MAIN CLAUSE (CAN STAND ALONE).
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS SENTENCE FRAGMENTS: GROUP OF WORDS LACKING A SUBJECT, PREDICATE, OR BOTH • Wore her warmest sweater. (lacks subject) • In the park for our picnic. (lacks subject/predicate)
COMPOUND: SENTENCE, BOX SENTENCE JOINS TWO OR MORE MAIN CLAUSES USING A COMMA AND CONJUNCTION OR SEMICOLON. Hydrogen has weight, but you can’t weigh it on an ordinary scale. You can buy your ticket in advance, or you can buy it at the door. He just sat there; nobody talked to him. Each main clause could stand by itself. Don’t include the FANBOYS in a main clause.
COMPLEX: OPENER/CLOSER ONE MAIN CLAUSE COMBINED WITH ONE OR MORE SUBORDINATE CLAUSES SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: HAS A SUBJECT/PREDICATE, BUT CAN’T STAND ALONE. • CAN’T STAND ALONE BECAUSE IT BEGINS WITH A RELATIVE PRONOUN OR SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION
COMPLEX EXAMPLES When it is foggy, driving is very dangerous. We were surprised when we learned of the arrest. The present that Tanya received lifted her spirits. Whenever my aunt is in town, she takes me to lunch. Vicky knows how the VCR is hooked up. Why you chose to bicycle in the rain is a mystery to me.
APPOSITIVES: SENT, INTERRUPTER, ENCE • Appositive: Noun placed next to another noun to identify or add information to it. Washington’s picture is on a coin, the quarter. Adam’s wife, Abigail, was well-read and outspoken. • Appositive phrase: group of words that describe the noun. Jefferson designed Monticello, his thirty-two room house. John Quincy Adams, the son of the second president, served only one term.
In the following paragraph, identify as many types of sentences as you can: That someone might find a precious pearl inside an oyster is intriguing and exciting. Although it is possible to find a natural pearl in an edible oyster, it isn’t likely. Most natural pearls come from the Persian Gulf and Sri Lanka; the Red Sea and the Philippines are also a source of natural pearls. Pearls are valued for their color, shape, clarity, and weight. In areas where natural pearls are scarce, pearls are cultured. A cultured pearl, which looks deceptively like a natural pearl, has fewer and thicker layers of nacre inside. Unless you are a gem expert, you cannot see the difference between a natural and a cultured pearl.