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Fiber to the Home

Fiber to the Home

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Fiber to the Home

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  1. Fiber to the Home Erik Radius, Jan Martijn Metselaar Colloquium SNE Master March 3, 2010

  2. 1 2 3 4 Introduction Fiber to the Home – technology Broadbandnetworks–NetworkArchitecture Discussion! Agenda Agenda 2

  3. Winitu Consulting is anexperienced consultancy companyprovidingknowledge of data- and telecommunication, IT and business process management. Winitu’s customer potfolio ranges fromlarge service providers to smallenterprises in bothprofit and non-profit sectors. Winitu consultants are experienced in design, implementation, optimisation and management of complex networks, IT and processes. IntroductionWinitu Consulting Who are we?

  4. Strategic / Tactical • Technical business • consultancy • Innovation • New technology • Auditing • Business Modelling • Project Management • Proces design and implementation • IT and network management • Development • Hands-onexperience • OperationalExcellence • Process consultancy • Problemsolving • Networkdesign and implementation • IT design and implementation • Networkoptimisation • Network and IT testing • Service and business development What do we do? – Winitu Portfolio Introduction Winitu Consulting

  5. 100% 40% 100% 100% • About the Winitu Group: • WinITu Gold was foundedJanuary 2000 • Winitu Communications is a, OPTA registered, (wholesale) unifiedcommunications provider • igilde is a full service IT service provider focusedonnetworktechnology • Infodation is a software developmentcompanyusingremotesourcing in Vietnam Introduction Winitu Consulting Organisation

  6. Introduction of the speakers of today Erik Radius Jan Martijn Metselaar Introduction

  7. 1 2 3 4 Introduction Fiber to the Home – technology Broadbandnetworks–NetworkArchitecture Discussion! Agenda Agenda 7

  8. FTTH technology: a closer look at optics Optical fiber is a compact, low-loss carrier forbroadbandsignals Optical fiber consists of 3 mainparts 1: glass core 2: glasscladding 3: plastic buffer coating FTTH technology

  9. Optical fiber inner workings Opticalsignal is containedwithin the fiber Higher index of refraction in core than in cladding Total internalreflection at the core/claddingboundary FTTH technology

  10. Multimode versus Singlemode (1) Multimode ‘Bigger’ core: 50 / 62,5mm Multiple optical modes supported/transmitted Bandwidth*distance product is limited Onlysuitableforshorterdistances (<1km) FTTH technology

  11. Multimode versus Singlemode (2) Singlemode Small core: 9mm 1 optical mode is supported/transmitted Signalmaybecarried over verylargedistance More information online, e.g. FTTH technology

  12. Transmitter & receiver Optical fiber is only a passivewaveguide Active components at the end points: Signalsource: laser diode Receiver: photo diode (Amplitude)modulation of the data stream Lightsignal is the ‘carrier’ wave Both digital and analogtransmissionpossible FTTH technology

  13. Signal loss in optical fiber is wavelengthdependent

  14. Power budget source:

  15. Optical power budget power budget Fiber link design: what is involved Fiber type (single mode? multi mode?) Fiber length (km) Licht source: output power (dBm) Detector: receiversensitivity (dBm) Elements in the link thatcauseadditionalsignal loss Fiber link budgetoroptical power budget the amount of lightavailable to make a fiber opticconnection Provides the maximum distancewith the availableoptics Take a minimum of 3dB margininto account

  16. Optical power budget: case #1 power budget Laser power: -7 dBm Fiber attenuation: 0,4 dB per kilometer Fiber length: 20 km Receiversensitivity: -29 dBm Splice loss: 0,1 dB (max.) Connector loss: 0,5 dB (max.) # of connectors: 2 # of splices: 4 CalculateLink budget: laser power – receiversensitivity CalculateMargin: laser power – receiversensitivity – [link losses]

  17. Optical power budget: case #2 power budget Laser power: +1 dBm Fiber attenuation: 0,25 dB per kilometer Fiber length: 40 km Receiversensitivity: -12 dBm Splice loss: 0,1 dB (max.) Connector loss: 0,5 dB (max.) # of connectors: 4 # of splices: 8 CalculateLink Budget: laser power – receiversensitivity CalculateMargin: laser power – receiversensitivity – [link losses]

  18. Pros and cons of optical fiber Questionforyou all... Give me 3 advantagesof optical fiber over metallic wiring ... and ... 3 disadvantages FTTH technology

  19. Fiber networks FTTH technology Transport networkslayers Core (+ international) network Metro(politan) network Access network Access networkfortelecom/cableTVpartial fiber Telecom Optical fiber up to central office Copperconnectioninto the home Cable TV Optical fiber up to streetcabinet coaxconnectioninto the home

  20. International networks (submarine cablesystems)

  21. National networks source: GIGAport website

  22. City networks(metro rings) sourceGIGAport website

  23. Fiber penetration in the accessnetwork Fiber…. to the Node Central office, >300m to the Curb/Cabinet Straatkast, <300m to the Building/Basement Multi-storey buildings to the Home into the ‘meterkast’ FTTH technology

  24. FTTH cabling concept Access network branches off multiple timesbetweencentral office and the home Installed: underground oraboveground (!) FTTH technology

  25. FTTH in Romenia (Bucharest) FTTH technology Fiber installationaboveground: example

  26. Underground installation FTTH technology Several underground deploymentmethodsavailable 1: modular tubes; insert fiber as needed (blown fiber) 2: fiber insideruggedcable (buried fiber) Blown fiber explained in more depth

  27. Miniduct system foraccessnetwork 1, 7, 12, 24 thin tubes in a ruggedoutdoorcable Branchingoffoneormultiple tubes is relativelysimple FTTH technologie

  28. Fiber in mini duct Installthincableintoductusingairflow FTTH technologie

  29. Fiber connection in the home Fiber connection in the home Exampleoptical fiber network terminal Services for end user: Internet (Analogue) television Phone Most ofteninstalled in the utility cabinet (‘meterkast’)

  30. Fiber, the movie FTTH installation in a Dutch neighborhood Blown fiber concept usingbranchingoffof individual tubes for house connections In the home: miniduct in the utility cabinet Installation of network terminal Testing & activation FTTH technologie

  31. … movie link is on your desktop somewhere Watch the movie

  32. Fiber architectures (1): Point-to-point POP point-to-point 1 on 1 fiber connectionbetween Central office and Home FTTH technology

  33. Fiber architectures (2): PON POP point-to-multipoint (PON: passiveopticalnetwork) opticalsplitter in the link, to sendsamesignal to multiple end points FTTH technology

  34. PON: shared medium

  35. Point-to-point versus PON PON popularwithtelcos USA Japan Australia ‘closed business/network model’ Point-to-pointmostlypopular in Europe Scandinavia Netherlands, France, etc ‘open network model’ FTTH technology

  36. Bidirectional data transmissionpopular in FTTH Single fiberbidirectionalfor data Different signalwavelengthsfor up vs down 1500nm downlink 1310nm uplink Reason? Less fiber needed in the field fiber management is expensive Space in the Central Office is scarce FTTH technology

  37. POP fiber management FTTH technologie

  38. Transport of services 3 services in the accessnetwork Internet Voice/telephony Television Variousways to realisethis... e.g. Internet: via data fiber (IP) Voice: via data fiber (VoIP) Television: via CATV fiber (overlaynetwork) or via IP FTTH technology

  39. 1 4 Introduction Fiber to the Home – technology 2 Broadband networks – Network Architecture 3 Discussion! Agenda Agenda 39

  40. Quizzz Dual play, Triple play, Multi play IP all the way! But what does the end-user care? Broadband services

  41. Current broadband services over FTTH networks Internet access Unicast IP (Duh…) Television IP unicast for video-on-demand IP multicast for broadcast television (the ‘default’ package of 50 channels) Telephony SIP signaling, RTP for transport Broadband services

  42. Current broadband services over FTTH networks Nice those triple play services, but how do you get the content to the subscribers? Smart network architecture… Broadband services

  43. Network Architecture – Layered model Access Lots of individual connections Focus on physical aggregation of lines Security Distribution Connection towards access layer Focus on logical aggregation of connections Route summarization Core Connection towards the distribution layer Focus on traffic volume No identification of individual connections Broadband services

  44. Network Architecture – Layered model Service provider 1 Service provider 2 core Core network metro access

  45. Discussie / Quizzz The how and why of current broadband networks Protocols? Speeds? Possibilities? Restrictions? Broadband services

  46. Network Architecture – Ethernet as uniform transport protocol Leased line ATM Frame Relay Ethernet Ethernet X.25 PPP Packet over Sonet (POS) SONET STM-1, 4, 16 SDH Broadband services

  47. Network structure – Domain separation “Wholesale” model: operator delivers network facilities to different content and service providers. Core Access Distribution / Core ISP 1 NT WWW backbone ISP 2 ISP 3 PSTN/ISDN Operator domain subscriber domain service provider domain

  48. Network Architecture – Access: connection model • How is the connection between subscriber and network realized? Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) IP over PPP over Ethernet PPP session from the modem into the distribution layer IP address assignment in PPP session setup via RADIUS ‘connection oriented’ Multiple PPP sessions for QoS guarantees Ethernet Bridging “DHCPmodel” IP over Ethernet IP address assigment through DHCP ‘connection less’ QoS via Ethernet Class of service Broadband services

  49. Network Architecture – Core: MPLS VPN MPLS VPN Ethernet Bridging VPN SP 1 VPN ISP 1 Distributie / Core apparatuur ISP 1 NT VPN ISP 2 VPN SP 2 ISP 2 backbone ISP 3 VPN ISP 3 VPN SP 3 City PoP Operator domain subscriber domain service provider domain

  50. Network Architecture – Core Network MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) Support for VPNs Traffic Engineering (used for fast reroute and ip multicast traffic) Ethernet transport over MPLS IP Routing IGP For distributing ‘next-hop’ routing information OSPF or IS-IS M-BGP For distributing IPv4 prefixes Broadband services