Download
the art of reading smoke n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The ART of Reading Smoke PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The ART of Reading Smoke

The ART of Reading Smoke

1890 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

The ART of Reading Smoke

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The ART of Reading Smoke

  2. Why “Read” Smoke? To determine “HOW MUCH” fire

  3. Why “Read” Smoke? To help find the LOCATION of the fire

  4. Why “Read” Smoke? To help predict COLLAPSE potential

  5. Why “Read” Smoke? To help PRIORITIZE Strategies & Tactics

  6. Why “Read” Smoke? To PROTECTFirefighters from a “HOSTILE FIRE EVENT”

  7. The “ADVANCED” Basics Gases Concept #1: “Smoke” IS Fuel Aerosols Particulates

  8. The “ADVANCED” Basics Concept #2: Fuels have changed… Mass and Make-up!

  9. The “ADVANCED” Basics Concept #3: The Fuel has Triggers: • Flash Point • Fire Point • Ignition Temperature

  10. The Triggers : Temp & Mixture “Flammable Range / Air Mix”

  11. Flammable Range & the Three Fires Too Rich . . . Too Lean . . . Just Right . . .

  12. Yesteryear vs. Today

  13. Other Prerequisites to Reading Smoke You must be able to determine... • Stage of Fire: Early, Growth, or Late • Is the “box” absorbing heat? Laminar vs. TURBULENT flow

  14. “ HOSTILE ” Fire Events • Flashover • Backdraft • Smoke Explosion • Rapid Fire Spread

  15. FLASHOVER WARNING SIGNS: • Turbulent Smoke • “Rollover” • Auto Ignition outside Smoke–Cloud ignition is likely after flashover

  16. BACKDRAFT Remember – Backdraft is triggered by O2 being introduced to pressurized smoke that is ABOVE it’s ignition temperature • Yellowish-grey smoke • Whistling • Bowing windows • “Sealed” containers

  17. SMOKE EXPLOSION Remember – A Smoke Explosion is a spark or flame applied to a mixture below its ignition temperature • Trapped gases in upper areas • Growing fire • Increasing smoke density • Air intake overtaking smoke exiting

  18. RAPID FIRE SPREAD Usually “Container” Influenced SMOKE is the Fuel that is spreading the fire Look for fast moving smoke in high pressure zones May result from another “event”

  19. “ Reading Smoke” Application “RULES”: Observations are typically made from outside - inside observations hide the “real” picture.

  20. “ Reading Smoke” • Visible FIRE is easy to read - look past it for the real story • Compare vent openings

  21. The ART of Reading Smoke A PROCESS to help predict fire behavior and hostile events

  22. Step 1:Evaluate Key Attributes • Volume • Velocity (Pressure) • Density • Color

  23. VOLUME • Always relative to the “Box” • Tells “how much” fuel has off-gassed • Sets the Stage

  24. VELOCITY (Pressure) • How fast is the smoke leaving? • Can indicate volume or heat • Helps find the location of the actual fire

  25. DENSITY • Most Important Factor • Quality of Burning • Continuity of Fuel • Likelihood of an Event • “Degree” of the Event

  26. COLOR • Rarely tells “material” burning • Stage of Heating • Location of Fire • “Brown” Smoke

  27. “BLACK FIRE” “Black Fire” is the term we give to High Volume, High Velocity, Extremely Dense, Black Smoke. It is the sure sign of impending flashover – VENT & COOL are your only choices.

  28. Step 2: Weigh Factors • Container (most important factor) • Weather

  29. Step 3: Judge the CHANGE RATE Are SMOKE conditions getting better or worse?

  30. Predict the EVENT Consider that: • One hostile event can - and usually will - lead to another event. • Communicate your observations. • Warning Signs are not always visual – use your KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCE. TRUST YOUR INSTINCTS…

  31. Some other “Tricks” WATCH OPEN DOORS! • Smoke/Air is 50/50: Fire on same level • SMOKE doesn’t lift: Fire below • SMOKE is stagnant or disappears: Fire Above

  32. Short Cuts (not absolute) • Thick/Black/Fast = heat and explosive • Thin/Black/Fast = fire pushed nearby • White w/Speed = hot – but distant • Uniform speed/color from many places = deep seated • Brown = unfinished wood being heated – a collapse warning in lightweight • Turbulent = Flashover

  33. Be Safe – Make it Safe For more info, contact Dave Dodson davedodson@q.com THANK YOU!