Bio-Molecules (4 organic compounds necessary for life) • Carbohydrates (sugars & starches) • Proteins • Lipids (fats & oils) • Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
Carbohydrates(Sugars & Starches) • Organic compounds with a 2:1 ratio between Hydrogen and Oxygen. (CH2O)n • Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C6H12O6 glucose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugar glucose~fructose~galactose “isomers” • Disaccharides (double sugars) C12H22O11 sucrose and lactose • Polysaccharides (complex sugars) (C6H10O5)n starch, cellulose, chitin, and glycogen
Carbohydrate Functions • Quick energy foods. 1 gram contains 4 Calories (kcal) of energy.(glucose, sucrose, and fructose) • Storage (starch, glycogen, and pectin) • Structure ( cellulose and chitin)
Protein • Proteins are organic compounds made up of smaller units called amino acids. • Each amino acid contains an NH2 or amino group and a COOH or carboxyl group or carboxylic acid
Protein Functions • Movement: Makes up muscle tissue (actin and myosin). • Transport: Carries oxygen in organisms (hemoglobin). • Immunity: Helps fight off foreign invaders (antibodies). • Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions (amylase and trypsin). • Energy source (1 gram = 4 kcal of energy).
Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis = DNA Protein Protein Synthesis = Transcription + Translation Transcription = DNA RNA Translation = RNAProtein
Lipids • A group of hydrophobic (nonpolar) fatty acids that contain very little oxygen. • Examples: Fats, Oils, Steroids, Cholesterol, and Wax. • They are found surrounding internal organs, in each cell membrane, and clogging arteries and veins.
Saturated: No double bonds between the carbons (maximum # H’s) Solid at room temperature Found mostly in animals. Unsaturated: Double bonds between some of the carbons (can fit more H’s) Liquid at room temperature Found mostly in plants Main Types of Fats
Lipid Functions • High Energy food. 1 gram contains 9 Kcal of energy. • Protects vital organs • Insulates the body • Stores food for later use
Nucleic Acids • These are chemical compounds made up of smaller units called nucleotides. • Examples are: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid) and ATP (Adenosinetriphosphate).
DNA Double Helix ( twisted ladder) Contains the bases A, T, C, & G Contains the code for the bodies proteins RNA Single strand Contains the bases A, U, C, & G Carries the code for a protein, and transfers amino acids to the ribosomes. Nucleic Acid Comparison
How Organic Compounds are Formed and Destroyed • Dehydration Synthesis • Hydrolysis
Dehydration Synthesis • The combination of two monomers (building blocks) using enzymes and losing water.
Hydrolysis • The process of breaking down a polymer (large organic molecule) into its sub units using enzymes and water.
Peptide Bond • A peptide bond is the covalent (shared) bond between the C of the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the N of an amino group of another amino acid
Resources How Enzymes Work