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Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage PowerPoint Presentation
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Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage

Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage

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Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage

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  1. Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage Stanley Culpepper, University of Georgia, Tifton

  2. Topics of Discussion • Changes in cotton production • Efforts to convert average cotton grower to heavy residue • Will the cotton farmer survive resistance

  3. Palmer Changes Agriculture Forever Total grower (n = 65) acres = 129,615 (12.6% of GA cotton) Total agent county (n = 10) acres = 246,034 (24% of GA cotton)

  4. Most troublesome weed

  5. Changes in Herbicide Management 2002: $24/A 2010: $63/A Roundup + Valor Burndown1 Gramoxone + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup + Staple POST 1 Roundup + Dual POST 2 Direx + MSMA PD Roundup Burndown Roundup POST 1 Roundup POST 2 Roundup + diuron PD

  6. 2000-2005: 17% of growers hand-weeded 5% cotton acres at $2.40/A 2006-2010: 92% of growers hand-weeded 52% cotton acres at $23.70/A Photo by A.C. York 2010

  7. Palmer Seed (#/plant) When Chopping Plants at Cotton Layby. 394,100 129,125 36,100 22,400 Not Chopped Chopped at 6 inch Chopped at 1 inch Chopped at soil 2010/2011: Sosnoskie/Grey/Webster/Culpepper

  8. Changes in tillage/planting practices from 2000-2005 to 2006-2010

  9. Tillage used by Georgia cotton growers % 256,075 acres (25.9%) 264,266 acres (26.7%) Deep turning (last 3 years) Incorporation of herbicides with tillage (2010)

  10. Most Palmer amaranth emerges from top inch

  11. Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage. Macon County, GA. Weeds Deep Tillage Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby

  12. Tillage in Cotton During 2010

  13. Palmer requires a significant amount of sunlight to emerge!!

  14. Potential Benefits for Georgia Growers • Improved Palmer control • Protect herbicide chemistry • Labor (compared to tillage) • Wind and water erosion • Prevents GR horseweed • Prevents/Lessons GR ryegrass • Moisture conservation • Reduce herbicide inputs • Higher yields on dryland • Protection from EPA • Reduces thrips damage

  15. Palmer amaranth response to cover crops. Macon County, GA. 2009. Rye cover Weeds Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby

  16. Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage and cover crops. Macon County, GA. 2009. Weeds Deep tillage Rye cover crop Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby

  17. GR Palmer amaranth influence on cotton lint yield (lb/A) in the Roundup system.* 790 a 690 b 592 c 480 d Inversion + rye Deep inversion Rye Weeds *RR System: Diuron + Reflex + Staple fb Roundup + Parrlay fb Direx + MSMA

  18. Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers • Blowout impacting stand • Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling • Spray then roll, roll then spray? • Time to get established • Increased fertilizer • Rubber wheel system • Grower comfort

  19. Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers • Blowout impacting stand • Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling • Spray then roll, roll then spray? • Time to get established • Increased fertilizer • Rubber wheel system • Grower comfort

  20. Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers • Blowout impacting stand • Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling • Spray then roll, roll then spray? • Time to get established • Increased fertilizer • Rubber wheel system • Grower comfort

  21. Percent Palmer Amaranth Control with Reflex 1 pt/A PPI or PRE in 2010. 98 A 99 A 79 B Irrigated Dryland

  22. Reflex: Soil moist at planting; rainfall 13 DAT. PRE PPI

  23. Percent Palmer Control with Reflex + Prowl PPI, PRE, Split 2011. 28 DAT. 91 a 72 b 60 c Injury = 5% Injury = 15% Injury = 5% PRE Split PPI Reflex 1 pt + Prowl H20 2 pt

  24. Percent Palmer Control with Reflex + Prowl PPI, 2010. TyTy, GA. 38 DAT. 92 a 80 b 3 c Field cultivator Disk Rototiller

  25. Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers • Blowout impacting stand • Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling • Spray then roll, roll then spray? • Time to get established • Increased fertilizer • Rubber wheel system • Grower comfort

  26. No herbicide Herbicide

  27. Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers • Blowout impacting stand • Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling • Spray then roll, roll then spray? • Time to get established • Increased fertilizer • Rubber wheel system • Grower comfort

  28. Rye Biomass (lb/A) at time of cotton Planting on May 13, 2011. 5724 5560 5664 5575 90 lb rye No N 60 lb rye No N 60 lb rye 30 unit N 90 lb rye 30 unit N PLANTED Nov 3

  29. Rye Biomass (lb/A) at time of cotton Planting on May 13, 2011. 3166 3001 2519 2162 90 lb rye No N 60 lb rye No N 60 lb rye 30 unit N 90 lb rye 30 unit N PLANTED DEC 22

  30. Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers • Blowout impacting stand • Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling • Spray then roll, roll then spray? • Time to get established • Increased fertilizer • Rubber wheel system • Grower comfort

  31. Developing An Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management Plan Eric P. Prostko, Ph.D. Professor and Extension Weed Specialist Dept. Crop & Soil Sciences

  32. Herbicide-resistance is not a new phenomenon!Its been happening since 1968! Source: International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds (http://www.weedscience.org/In.asp)

  33. Evolution of Herbicide Resistant Weeds • Repeated applications of herbicides with same site of action (i.e. selection pressure) • Annual weeds that…… • occur in high populations • are widely distributed • are prolific seed producers • have efficient gene (seed or pollen) dissemination • competitive growth

  34. PPO Herbicides Resistance has already been reported in other areas!!! Amaranthus quitensis 2005 (Bolivia) Common waterhemp 2001 (Kansas) 2002 (Illinois) 2005 (Missouri) 2009 (Iowa) Common ragweed 2005 (Delaware) 2006 (Ohio) Wild poinsettia 2004 (Brazil)

  35. Liberty • Abuse of Liberty • LL cotton, corn, soybeans • PHY WRF cotton • may jeopardize future technologies (DHT, Dicamba) • Current resistances • Italian ryegrass (Oregon) • Goosegrass (Malaysia)

  36. Impact of GR Palmer amaranth on GA. 37 % acres 18 0 Liberty-based Programs

  37. 1.5 pt of 2,4-D Liberty + 1.5 pt of 2,4-D

  38. Clarity 8 oz Liberty + Clarity 8 oz

  39. HPPD Liberty + HPPD

  40. Herbicide Resistance: Will You Survive? 1,089,000 plants per acre 25 plants per square foot emerge = If resistance is one in a billion then you only need 918 acres to find that plant. (historically resistance is 1 plant in population of 1-10 million…9.18 acres)

  41. How do we save Liberty and the family farm???? • Significant pressure on Bayer…….prevent known repetitive abusers from being able to purchase Liberty?? • Bayer/Monsanto/Dow should unite!!!! • Growers/Industry/Distributors/Dealers/Extension unite!! • Regulate????

  42. NO DOUBT THE MOST SUSTAINABLE PROGRAM IN THERMS OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE