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The Old World Transformed. HIST 1004 1/9/13. Why now?. Scholasticism. Focused on logical reconciliation of ancient authorities. Greek philosophers (and their Muslim commentaries) and Christianity System of disputation – question -> response -> counter proposal -> rebuttal.
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The Old World Transformed HIST 1004 1/9/13
Scholasticism • Focused on logical reconciliation of ancient authorities. • Greek philosophers (and their Muslim commentaries) and Christianity • System of disputation – question -> response -> counter proposal -> rebuttal
Humanism • Progressive thought with a focus on reason and logic. • Cultural and educational reform during the Renaissance. • Pull general understanding with intent of improving the individual. • Critical of Church hierarchy and blind tradition.
The Printing Revolution What’s so important about the development of printing?
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468) • German goldsmith and printer • 1439: Invents the first moveable type print and the first printing press
From Gutenberg Bible to… • 1455: Gutenberg 42-line Bible • Costs approx. 3 years salary for average clerk • Type setting takes ½ a day per page • Hand copying takes one scribe a year to produce a Bible
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses to… • 1517: Luther’s 95 Theses • 1519: 300,000 printed copies across Europe • Luther produces broad-sheets specifically for mass market • Ironically, Gutenberg got his start printing indulgences
To Newspapers… • 1605: Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien • World’s first modern newspaper
Was Gutenberg the First? • 1040: Woodblock moveable type in China • Still expensive due to thousands of necessary characters… Why not in the Islamic world?
Printing and Social Change • Growing urban populations with disposable income, bourgeoisie… • Leads to spread of literacy… • Introduction of cheap production methods (printing press)… • Leads to rapid spread of ideas… • Allows ideas to gain hold before traditional authorities could block them…
Christianity before Martin Luther • Before 1519: Papacy primary authority in Latin Christianity • Long history of conflicts between the papacy and secular rulers as well as church reformers • Investiture Controversy (11th century) • Crusades (11th-13th centuries) Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) by Raphael
Indulgences • Forgiveness of the penance due for past sins • Purchased from the church either for money or for service (such as crusading) • Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521): overseer of construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome
Martin Luther (1483-1546) • German monk • 1508: Professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg • 1517: Luther begins protesting the sale of indulgences on theological grounds • 95 Theses on the Power and Efficiency of Indulgences
The Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther seen as a direct challenge to papal authority. • 1519: Accused of disagreeing with church doctrine • 1521: Diet of Worms: Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X and declared an outlaw by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
“Unless I am convicted by the testimony of Scripture or by evident reason - for I trust neither in popes nor in councils alone, since it is obvious that they have often erred and contradicted themselves - I am convicted by the Scripture which I have mentioned and my conscience is captive by the Word of God. Therefore I cannot and will not recant, since it is difficult, unprofitable and dangerous indeed to do anything against one's conscience. God help me. Amen." Martin Luther, 1521
Huldrych Zwingli 1484-1531 • Swiss reformer, Chaplain to mercenaries in his early years. • Influenced by Erasmus and Humanist thought. Also influence by Luther but disputed some of his theology. • Began to preach openly against church doctrines and corruption in Zurich ~ 1518-1519
The Marburg Colloquy of 1529 August Noack - 1867
John Calvin 1509-1564 • Studied law in Paris (Humanist) • Read works of Luther in French • No formal religious training • Second generation reformer • Defended the doctrine of Predestination which was controversial because it took almost all power out of the hierarchy of the church.
…Meanwhile, back in Rome • By about 1550, populations across Europe had mostly recovered from the devastating effects of the plague. • Reformed ideas begin to spread more quickly as Humanist thought became more prevalent in theology. • How does the Catholic Church React to these protesters and their “Protestant Reformation”?
Counter Reformation • The Catholic Reformation – direct response to the Protestant Reformation. • Reform from within • Addressed corruption, theological issues, and political issues such as granting Indulgences. Pope Paul III (p. 1534-1549)
Council of Trent 1545 - 1563 • Ecumenical council that met for 18 years • Met under three popes who were mostly reform minded • Meeting in Trent was a political compromise • Protestant Reformation forced the Roman Catholic Church to define its stance on salvation and the sacraments
Success of the Catholic Reformation • In 1545, roughly half of Europe was protestant. One hundred years later, only just under one quarter of the population were. • The death of Martin Luther in 1562 slowed Protestant reform and helped Catholic reform gain momentum. • Success of organizations such as the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) that made education a priority which helped to spread their theology more effectively.
…Meanwhile, back in England • By the 1530s, reformed theology was becoming popular in England. • Not just among scholars and theologians. Thanks to Guttenberg and translations in the vernacular, ideas were spreading among all classes. • The “King’s Great Matter” provided the opportunity for the Protestant movement to gain legitimacy in England.
The King’s Great Matter 1525-1533 • Henry VIII (1491-1547) - married to Catherine of Aragon. • 1525 becomes infatuated with Anne Boleyn • 1527 – seeks an annulment so he could marry Anne Boleyn • Looked to scripture to justify the annulment because of a lack of children. • Unfortunately for Henry, Catherine’s nephew was Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. • Charles V Sacked Rome in 1527 and the Pope essentially his political prisoner.
Church of England • Several stages to the split with Rome. Mostly in Parliament and theological maneuvers. • By 1534 Parliament enacts the Act of Supremacy which declares Henry VIII: “…the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England” • Draws on the idea of “Divine Right of Kings” • Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishopof Canterbury • Book of Common Prayer 1549
“Wars of Religion” • Enforcement of religious preferences of kings • Spain and Portugal defend Catholicism • Inquistion against Protestants • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) • Kings accept majority Catholicism but give religious freedom to the Protestants (until 1598) • Anglican Church (1533) • Puritans want to remove all traces of Catholicism • Oliver Cromwell (r. 1653- 1658) and the English Civil War (1642-1649) • “No bishops, no king” James I (of King James Bible fame)