Dealing with nervousness • Acquire speaking experience • Prepare, prepare, prepare • Think positively • Use the power of visualization visualization: mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation. • Most nervousness is not visible • Don’t expect perfection
Converting negative thoughts into positive thoughts • I wish I didn’t have to give this speech. • I’m not a great public speaker. • I’m always nervous when I give a speech. • No one will be interested in what I have to say. • This speech is a chance for me to share my ideas and gain experience as a speaker. • No one’s perfect, but I’m getting better with each speech I give. • Every one is nervous. If other people can handle it, I can too. • I have a good topic and I’m fully prepared. of course they will be interested.
The speech Communication process • Context • Speaker, sender, encoder • Message • Channel, medium • Listener, receiver, decoder • Feedback • Interference • Situation • context • It includes country, culture, organization, external and internal stimuli. • Stimuli: any passing-by energy that affects your sense organ. • External stimulus: prompts you to send a message. • Internal stimulus: has a complex influence on how you translate ideas into message.
Chapter Two The Seven C’s O’ Effective Communication
Briefings • Three Important Skills • How much to put in. • What to leave out. • When to quit. (All this is planning!) • If you don’t plan: • You can’t give good examples • You have examples but you can’t properly define your examples. • You can’t finish what you want to present in time specified for you.
More • No letter is too long if a reading proves every word necessary. • First paragraph and beyond that reading • NOTICE OF CANCELLATION OF SERVICES". • Reading Novels
The Seven C’s o’ Effective Communication • Completeness • Conciseness • Consideration • Concreteness • Clarity • Courtesy • Correctness
1.1 Completeness (cont’d) • Provide All Necessary Information • Answer All Questions Asked • Give Something Extra, When Desirable خواستنی
1.2 Completeness (cont’d) • Answer all W’s • Answer all questions asked Stated questions Implied questions • Give something extra, if necessary. • Imagining every reader “show me” • Benefits, uses, betterment over other products
1.3 Completeness (cont’d) • To reserve a hotel Location (where), Sponsoring Organization (who), Date and Time (When) Event (Why) Number of guests (How many)
2.1 Conciseness • Saying something in few possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. • It is complete without being wordy. • Professional People (be direct) • Avoid rehashing the reader’s letter. • Avoid filler words • Get to the subject of the message (be relevantly.) • Watch your prepositions
2.2 Conciseness (cont’d) • Avoid use of passive • Avoid long introduction
2.3 Watch Your Prepositions • Prepositions are not bad. • They serve a needed function in the language. • Stop over using prepositions . • Stop Compound Prepositions. Write Avoid About the matter of ,with reference to,in relation to,in the matter of
2.4 Conciseness (cont’d) Beforein advance of prior to,previous to Nowas of this date,at the present time,as of this writing,at this time Withaccompanied by,in connectionwith Ifin the event that For in favour of ,for the period of ,for the purpose of
2.5 Conciseness (cont’d) Until until such time as Because accounted for by the fact that ,as a result of ,due to the fact that ,in as much as ,in the event that ,for the reason that ,in the view of the fact that ,on the grounds that ,owing to the fact that
2.6 Conciseness (cont’d) • Read your sentences . • If more than five prepositions are found there ,revise the sentences. • Of is commonly used Preposition. Ex.1The committee should give consideration to publishing further information with a view toward anticipating probable questions that may occur at future in time. Anticipating probable questions , the committee should consider publishing more information .
2.7 Conciseness (cont’d) Central to our understanding of the problem of the organizational structure in the widget division of the Qualpro Company is the chain of command below the position of the divisional vice-president ,which is not connected with all of the subordinate departments. The organization problem at the Qualpro Company’s widget division centers on the unclear connection between the divisional vice-president and the subordinate departments.
2.8 Conciseness (cont’d) Avoid using empty phrases Wordy: There are four rules that should be observed. Concise: Four rules should be observed. • Omit “which”, and “that” clauses whenever possible. • Wordy: She bought desks that are of the executive type. • Concise: She bought executive-type desks.
2.9 Conciseness (cont’d) • Watch your repetition. • Use a shorter name after you have mentioned the long once. e.g. North CentralCompany (North Central) • Use pronouns or initials. U.N, UNHCR, BBC
3.1 Consideration • The You-Attitude (Preparing every message with the message in receivers in mind) Ex1. I am glad to announce that that we will be extending our hours to make shopping more convenient. You-Attitude: You will be able to shop evenings with the extended hours. Ex.2 We are happy to have enabled a site to give students chance to have access to data of their every course. You-Attitude: You can receive the data of your each course from the site enabled for you.
3.2 Consideration • Have you floodlighted his/her interests? • Receiver reacts positively when they are shown benefits. • Why are you selling products to them? • What are the prevelliges of your product upon others? Ex.1 You will be glad to know that we now have a walk-up window open 7-9 A.M and 3-8P.M every weekday.”So what?” Considerate: You can take care of your banking needs at our new Walk-Up Window. It is open with a capable teller to serve you 7-9 A.M and 3-8 P.M .Monday through Friday. Ex.2 You are offered different courses by Kardan University in March 2008 with flexibility in timings . Considerate: Kardan offers you B.B.A,B.C.S,DEL,D.B.A,D.I.T Programs in Spring 2008.These programs timings don’t interrupt your working hours .
3.3 Consideration • Accent positive (Stressing what can be done instead what cant be done.) • Words bring tragedies in both war in piece. NegativePositive We don’t refundWe refund If the returned item iswhen item is Soiled and unsalable. Clean and sa lable.
3.4 Consideration • You’re not allowed You are most welc- In class If you don’t ome to class if you appear for the inter- appear for intervie- View and pay the first and clear your first Month fee. Month due.
3.5 Consideration • Show audience benefit or interest in the receiver.
4.1 Concreteness • Concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general.
4.2 Concreteness • Use specific facts and figures Vague, general,Concrete, precise Students GMAT scoresIn 1990 the GMAT are higher.scores averaged 600, by 1997 they had risen to 610. She is a brain. Her grade-point average in 1996 was 3.9 on a four-point average.
4.3 Concreteness Exceptions: • When it is not possible to be specific,” You may not have the precise figures or facts.” • When you wish to be diplomatic: “You have missed three invitations to my office.” is harsh; you might say “ I have sent you several reminders to see me in my office.”
4.4 Concreteness • Put Action in Your Verbs 1) Use Active Voice rather than Passive Voice. Specific: Administrator canceled the meeting. It was canceled. Personal Concise Passive is dull.
4.6 Concreteness • Put Action in Verbs, Not in Nouns • Deadly Verbs-be, give, have, hold, make, put, and, take Action Hiding in “Quiet” Noun Action in the Verb The function of this office isThis office collects payments and compiles the collection of paymentsstatements. and the compilation of statements. Prof. H will give consideration toProf. H. will consider the report. the report. The proposal has a requirement for..The proposal requires that…… Students held the meeting in the office. Students met in the office.
4.5 Concreteness • Passive is used when: You avoid personal ,accusation When you want to stress the object of the action When the doer is not important in the action
4.6 Concrerteness • Choose vivid, Image-Building Words • To make your message forceful use sensory appeals, Comparisons, Figurative Language, well-chosen adjectives. Coming Next
4.7 Concreteness • Use Vivid, Image-Building Words Sensory Appeal Concrete language appeals to one of five senses. This language is more descriptive. ConventionalMore Descriptive It was hot inSweet trickled down the the factory.arms of the line workers. OR The secretary’s face was wrinkled after squinting into the computer the entire day.
4.8 Concreteness • Choose Vivid, Image-Building Words • Comparisons • Comparison can make an unclear idea clear or make an idea more vivid. • Bland ImageMore Vivid Image Proposals submittedToo many simple This quarter were un-sentences, too many Interesting.simplistic ideas gave the impression of the writing of a first-year student. This is a long letter. This letter is three times as long as you said it would be.
5.1 Clarity • Getting the meaning from your head into the reader head • It is not simple because every point is interpreted differently. • Have you used familiar words, short sentences? • Have you presented only one idea in each sentence?
5.2 Clarity • Choose precise, concrete and familiar words. • Precise and Concrete Words: Exact or right word to convey the message • Familiar Words : Words between two friends • When you have the choice between long and short word go for the shorter one that your listener and reader get quickly. • It is familiar to audience, and appropriate for the situation.
5.3 Clarity • FamiliarPretentious about circa (L) after subsequent home domicile for example e.g. (L) pay remuneration invoicestatement forpayment
5.4 Clarity • Unfamiliar: After our perusal of pertinent data, the conclusion is that a lucrative market exists for the subject property. • Familiar: The data we studied show that your property is profitable and in high demand.
5.4 Clarity Length: Short sentences are liked the best . 17-20 words Unity: Simple, compound and complex (Try to have one idea in the sentences. ) “My name is Ali .My father graduated from Kabul University.” “I like Jim, and the Eiffel Tower is in Paris.” Coherence: The words are correctly arranged . Unclear: His report was about managers ,broken down by age and gender. Clear: His report focused on age and gender of managers . His report about managers focused on ………… .
5.5 Clarity Emphasis: The quality that gives force to important parts of sentences and paragraphs is …. Writers and speakers must decide what needs emphasis and then choose correct sentence structure. In Complex Sentences ,the most importan ideas shall be put in main clauses Italics, Graphs, Capitalization, Underlining,Colouring
6.1 Courtesy Red points about the topic “COURTESY” • Knowing of your receivers’ feelings. • Will it win good will ? • Have you used positive-toned words? • Have you used “I appreciate ,””please” and “thank you” somewhere in your message ?
6.2 Courtesy • Be it sincere, tactful, thoughtful, appreciative • Use expressions that show respect • Choose nondiscriminatory words
6.2 Courtesy (Cont’d) • Tactless More Tactful • Clearly, you didn’t Sometimes my wording read my latest fax. is not precise; let me try again. I rewrote that letter I’m sorry the point was three times; the point not clear; here is was clear. another version.
6.2 Courtesy (Con’d) • Be sincere • More information about the topic… • Your respect, attitude toward the society should not be symbolic • Try to be very polite with easterners because they like more polite approach in both oral and written communication.
6.3 Courtesy • Use expressions that show respect • Avoid expressions particularly with you. • You claim that… Inexcusable • simply nonsense We are amazed you can’t • Why have you ignored Your neglect • Your failure to You forgot to • You didn’t tell us You have to
6.4 Courtesy • Choose Nondiscriminatory Expressions • Definition o’ the topic • Equal treat meant of people regardless of gender, race, ethnic region and physical features. • Now lets go for the following points closely related to our topic. Coming Slide
6.4 Courtesy (Cont’d) • Sexist terms: “ Man” Words • Man is commonly used in compound nouns to refer to the humanity in general • But now it is thought that it refers to only male human-beings. • There are some neutral words that you can use to replace the man-compound words. • Human rights activist criticism of neglecting o’ females
6.4 Courtesy FreshmanFirst year student Manpowerworkforce, workers employees Manmademanufactured, built constructed
6.5 Courtesy (Cont’d) • Singular Pronouns • English lacks a pronoun that is neutral and referring to both sexes.
6.5 Courtesy (Cont’d) • Any one who comes Students who come late to class late will get his to class will have their grade reduced. grade reduced. • Each customer will Customers will have new have the new changes changes noted on their bills. noted on his bill. • You guys shall be Both men and women, all of concerned about the issue. you should be concerned about the issue.
6.6 Courtesy • Names • Whenever u. use names, treat each gender with respect. • Ali Nabizada