Psychological Disorders • …are “harmful dysfunctions” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and/or unjustifiable
Atypical • is abnormal – being different from most other people in one’s culture
Disturbing • means that a behavior goes against the standards of acceptable behavior, is unnerving, grotesque, or otherwise disruptive to a generally acceptable level of comfort.
Maladaptiveness • indicates that the behaviors are distressing or disabling or puts one at a greatly increased risk of suffering or death
Unjustifiable • means that certain behaviors are irrational, or that a behavior lacks any mental clarity or reason
Biological Model (Medical Model) • Abnormal behaviors are caused by physiological malfunctions – IE. a failure of the central nervous system, an improperly working endocrine system, an abnormal flow of a specific hormone, genetic factors, brain damage
Psychoanalytical Model • Abnormal behaviors are symbolic expressions of unconscious, internal conflicts, often associated with early childhood – IE. A fear of open water due to almost drowning as a child, obsessions with women who remind you of the mother who abandoned you, serial violence against homosexuals based on your own internal orientation conflicts
Behavioral Model • Abnormal behavior is the result of learned behavior – IE. you are a psychopathic killer because you watched violent programming on tv….you obsessively clean the house because Mom obsessively cleaned the house
Diathesis-Stress Model(Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective) • Abnormal behavior is caused when prone individuals who otherwise may not exhibit symptoms are put into stressful situations and then exhibit symptoms
IE. You may occasionally be stressed, or drink a bit or a have trouble sleeping, but then your house burns down, your ID is stolen online, your bank accounts are emptied, your wife leaves you……thus you “snap”. An anxiety disorder emerges, a substance abuse disorder emerges, a sleep disorder emerges….
There are 18 categories of Psychological Disorders, as specified in the DSM-V (May 2013) – the American Psychiatric Association’s “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” http://www.dsm5.org
Neurodevelopmental disorders • Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders • Bipolar and related disorders • Depressive disorders • Anxiety disorders • Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders • Trauma- and stressor-related disorders • Dissociative disorders • Somatic symptom and related disorders • Feeding and eating disorders • Sleep–wake disorders • Sexual dysfunctions • Gender dysphoria • Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders • Substance-related and addictive disorders • Neurocognitive disorders • Paraphilic disorders • Personality disorders
Anxiety Disorders • Disorders characterized by an intensely distressing, persistent stress, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce stress.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder • A person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic system arousal
Dizziness • Sweaty Palms • Heart Palpitations • Ringing in the Ears • Edgy and Shaky • Unfocused and Out-of-Control Negative Feelings • Worried constantly about bad things that may happen • Twitchiness and/or trembling
Panic Disorder • Sufferers have acute episodes of intense anxiety without any apparent provocation
Phobias • Marked by persistent, irrational fears and avoidance of a specific object or situation • Some phobias are so intense that they are incapacitating
Bipolar Disorder • A person’s mood alternates between mania (expanded self-esteem, reduced need of sleep, talks more often and talks longer, ideas flit in quick succession, thoughts race and preoccupy the person, over indulgence in enjoyable behaviors with high risk of a negative outcome (e.g., extravagant shopping, sexual adventures or improbable commercial schemes) and depression (characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities)
Major Depressive Disorder • Symptoms may include feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness, as well as complaints of physical pain and changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy level. • Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) • A serious state of chronic depression, which persists for at least 2 years (1 year for children and adolescents); it is less acute and severe than major depressive disorder.
Dissociative Disorders • Involve disturbances in a person’s consciousness, memories, identity, and perception of the environment
Dissociative Identity Disorder • A person has two or more distinct personalities that alternate in their control of the person’s behavior
Amnesia • Loss or impairment of memory. • AnterogradeAmnesia – Cannot create new memories • Retrograde Amnesia – Cannot access old memories • Amnesia with a physical cause is called organic amnesia, whereas amnesia of psychological origin is called functional amnesia
Enuresis • An inability to control urination • Encopresis • The repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places (e.g., clothing or floor) whether voluntary or unintentional, at least one such event a month for at least 3 months, and at or beyond the chronological age of at least 4 years
Anorexiais essentially a form of self-starvation in order to lose weight, Bulimics partake in binge and purge behaviors in order to maintain body weight
Pica • Characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as ice, clay, chalk, glass, hair, urine, dirt, or sand. • Binge Eating Disorder • An eating disorder characterized by binge eating without subsequent purging episodes
Gender Dysphoria or Gender-Identity Disorder is a formal diagnosis to describe people who experience significant dysphoria (discontent) with the sex they were assigned at birth and/or the gender roles associated with that sex.
Kleptomania – compulsive stealing • Pyromania – setting fires • Conduct Disorder -repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
Dementia • A serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It reduces the ability to learn, reason, retain or recall past experience and there is also loss of patterns of thoughts, feelings and activities.
Intellectual Disorders • Intellectual Development Disorder • Communication Disorders • Child Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering) • Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorders • AD/HD • Autism Spectrum Disorder • Motor Disorders • Tourette’s Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) or actions (compulsions) • Checking to see if a door is locked is normal. Doing it 30 times or “I will die” is not. Washing your hands is normal. Washing them until your hands are raw so that “all of the germs are gone” is not.
Body-Dysmorphic Disorder • A preoccupation with an imagined or minor defect in appearance which causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. • Trichotillomania • The compulsive urge to pull out one's own hair leading to noticeable hair loss, distress, and social or functional impairment.
PARAPHILIAS INCLUDE FANTASIES, BEHAVIORS, OR SEXUAL URGES FOCUSING ON UNUSUAL OBJECTS, ACTIVITIES, OR SITUATIONS
EXHIBITIONISM • SEXUALLY EXPOSING ONESELF (GENITALS) TO OTHERS
FETISHISM • SEXUAL URGES AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-LIVING OBJECTS