Study Guide By: Joshua
S.C.A1.3.1 • Mass is a measure of how much matter is made of in a object. • Volume is the amount of 3-D space used to describe the space that an object takes up. • Density measures the amount of matter packed into a unit volume; density of an object is equal to its mass divided by its volume.
S.C.A 1.3.1 continued • Mass is the amount of matter that something is made of.Kilograms is the basic SI unit for mass. Kilogram is used to measure cars, and grams is used to measure smaller objects. • Length to show how thick something is. The SI unit to express that is meters. Other units of length larger or smaller then the meter by multiples of 10. they also use micrometers or nanometers. • Volume measures the amount of space an object contains. Some measurements are liters, milliliters, and centimeters.
S.C.A.1.3.3 • Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of all the particles in a object. • Hot liquid’s move very fast and have high average kinetic energy. • Cold liquid’s particles are moving slowly and have a lower average kinetic energy. • A thermometer can measure temperature through regular variation of some physical properties.
S.C.A.1.3.3 continued • Heat is transferred from one object that has different temperature. When different objects with different temperature touch heat and thermal energy pass through. • Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of particles that make up a substance. High temperature has lots of thermal energy. Low temperature doesn’t have much thermal energy.
S.C.A.1.3.4 • The particles in a solid are held tightly together but are always in motion. They vibrate back and forth in the same position. It doesn’t change shape or size. • The particles in a liquid slide by one another and are always in motion. They have more freedom then solids do. Liquid has definite volume but no definite shape. No matter what shape it makes the volume remains the same. • The particles in a gas are completely free to move and are always in motion. They move at high speeds. They might collide, but otherwise they don’t interact much.gas has no definite shape or definite volume. Evaporation is when the liquids turn into a gas.
S.C.A.1.3.4 continued • The attractions for a solid are very high so they stick together. The attractions between a liquid is a little off they are able to move around more then a solid can. Finally the attractions between a gas are extremely low because they move around at high speeds and they rarely interact with each other.
S.C.A.1.3.5 • Thermal energy is a total random kinetic energy of moving particles. Here’s an example; lemonade with ice, the ice absorbs heat and has a lot more thermal energy then the lemonade does. • An example of heat is when ice is placed on a hot bowl of soup. The ice melts and the melting ice turns the soup the same temperature.
S.C.A.1.3.5 continued • A physical change is when a change of matter happens, but there is no change in chemical properties. • A chemical change is when one or more substances change into an entirely new substance with different properties. • One property that’s reversible is when you freeze ice and melt it, dissolve salt and let the water evaporate to get salt again. The 4 are gas formation, solid formation, color change, and energy change.
S.C.A.2.3.1 • Amplitude has to do with the maximum distance of the particles of a waves medium vibrate from their rest position. • Wavelength is the distance from any point of a wave to an identical point on the next wave. • The 2 types of waves are transversal waves and longitudinal wave. • Wave speed has to do with how fast it travels, it can be calculated by using wavelength.
S.C.A.2.3.1 continued • Frequencies is expressed in hertz or Hz. But for waves on hertz equals one wave per second. • High-frequencies waves carry more energy then low-frequencies do. A wave with 2/10 s has frequency of 2/10 or .2
S.C.A.2.3.2 • Protons are positive charge, and they belong in the nucleus. • A neutron is an uncharged charge its not positive nor is it negative. It belongs in the nucleus with the protons. • Electrons have a negative charge and they belong in the electron cloud or outside of the nucleus. • An atomic number is the number of protons are in a atom.
S.C.A.2.3.2 continued • An isotope are atoms with the same element but have a different number of neutrons. • A mass number tells the number of isotopes are in the atom. • An ion is formed when an atom loses or gains an electron.
S.C.A.2.3.3 • Some radiations are x-rays, gamma rays, electromagnetic radiation, microwaves, and EM waves. • Electromagnetic radiation is when a disturbance that energy transfers through a field. • The EM waves are created and formed by our sun. • A mechanical wave transfers energy in two waves, it has potential energy, and kinetic energy.
S.C.A.2.3.3 continued • An EM spectrum can be represented by diagrams. • Radio waves are use for radio’s or a television broadcasting. • Microwaves are used for radar, cellphones, ovens, and satellite communications. • Infrared is used to see how hot something is by seeing it very hot, to being very cold. Hot=red, Cold=Blue. • X-rays are useful for showing hard tissues inside the body like bones. • The ultraviolet light is in process of DNA analysis. • Visible light is part of the EM spectrum that can be seen with the human eye.