District : • According to Cambridge Dictionary Online district is " an area of a country or town that has fixed borders that are used for official purposes, or that has a particular features that makes it different from surrounding areas". - In BNC, the term has 7923 hits, which means it is widely used in English language. • - This term usually comes with many words especially in politics, for exampledistrict council (in British) . • - District court (in the US) it is a general trial court of the United States federal court system. • - The most famous usage of this word is • District of Columbia. • - مقاطعة أو إقليم.
Congress: • According to Oxford Advanced Learner's dictionary congress is a " large formal meeting or series of meetings where representatives from different groups discuss ideas, make decisions, etc". • - In The US and some countries congress is the name of the group of people who are elected to make laws, in the US consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. • - This term is used in the names of political parties in some countries (e.g. The African National Congress). • The term Congress House is the headquarters of the British Trades Union Congress in London, England. A member of congress in The US, especially The House of Representatives is called (congressman or congresswomen). • - In the BNC, this word received 5460 hits • which means it is widely used. -الكونجرس / مؤتمر / هيئة تشريعية
Reform: • According to Oxford Advanced Learner's dictionary reform is “ a change that is made to a social system, an organization, etc. in order to improve or correct ”it. • - In politics, the word reform usually comes with the word "movement". A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. • - Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, Social democratic) or religious concepts. • -The Reform Acts: three British Acts of Parliament passed during the 19th century to change the way members of parliament were elected and to allow more people to vote. • - In BNC, the term received 5855 hits, which means it is widely used. It also has positive connotations. The term has synonyms in English (e.g. reclaim). It • also has antonyms (e.g. corrupt). • أصلح - إصلاح
Diverse: • According to Oxford Advanced Learner's dictionary diverse is " very different from each other and of various kinds". It usually has a general meaning. – • However, in Sociology and Political studies, it is used to describe political entities with members who have identifiable differences in their cultural background. • The term is also used in politics to describe differences in racial or ethnic classification, religion, philosophy or identifying features. • - In the Corpus of Contemporary American, the term received 13890 hits, which means it is widely used. The term has synonyms in English (e.g. assorted, different), it also has antonyms (e.g. alike, similar). • - تُترجم للعربية (مختلف أو متنوع).
Defeat: According to Oxford Advanced Learner's dictionary defeat is " verb: to win against somebody in a war, competition, etc", "noun: failure to win or to be successful". However, this term is being used nowadays in Syria Conflict (e.g. Syria defeat, to defeat regime). The adjectives (narrow and heavy) are used to describe the noun defeat . The verb admit is usually used with defeat (to admit defeat= stop trying to be successful), for example: They finally had to admit defeat. -In Corpus of Contemporary American English, the word defeat received 9879 hits, which means it is widely used. This term has synonyms in English (e.g. failure, collapse), it also has antonyms (e.g. success, victory, win). - تترجم إلى العربية )هزم/هزيمة أو أحبط/إحباط).
Deliberation: • According to Oxford Advanced Learner's dictionary deliberation is " the process of carefully considering or discussing". • - Deliberation in Political Philosophy speaks to the wide range of views whereby deliberation becomes a possibility within particular governmental regimes. • There are some terms which are usually come with deliberation: Deliberative democracy or discursive democracy is a form of • democracyin which deliberation is central to decision making. • - The word deliberation is very formal. • - In the BNC, the term received 207 hits, which means it is relatively used frequently. • - The term has synonyms in English (e.g. arguments, consultation). • تترجم إلى العربية : تشاور / تباحث / تفاوض
Division: • - According to Meriam-Webster's dictionary division is " something that divides, separates, or marks off". • - A political division is a term of art in geography defining the concept of a geographic region accepted to be in the jurisdiction of a particular • governmentalentity. - In Corpus of Contemporary American English, the term received 29267 hits, which means it is widely used. - The word has synonyms in English (e.g. separation, separator, partition). - تترجم إلى انقسام / انفصال
Discreet: • -According to Oxford Advanced Learner's dictionary discreet is " carful in what you say, in order to keep something secret to avoid causing difficulty for somebody". • - In politics, the term refers to the freedom or power to decide what should be done in particular situation. • In the BNC, the term received 527 hits, which means it is relatively used frequently. • - This term has clear positive connotation. The term has synonyms in English (e.g. cautious, carful). It also has antonyms (e.g. careless, headless). • - تترجم للعربية : متحفظ، حذر.