UNION (NORTH) CIVIL WARADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES • ADVANTAGES • Larger population • More industry • More resources • Organized banking system • More railroad mileage • Abraham Lincoln • More ships • DISADVANTAGES • Faced hostile people • Southern territory unfamiliar
CONFEDERACY (SOUTH) CIVIL WARADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES • Smaller population • Few factories • Less food production • Fewer railroad miles • Fewer ships • ADVANTAGES • Strong popular support • Familiar territory • Superior military leadership • Men more experienced with shooting and outdoors
UNION (NORTH) CIVIL WARSTRATEGIES • The Anaconda Plan • Blockade Southern ports to stop import of supplies • Split the Confederacy by gaining • control of the Mississippi River • Capture Richmond, the Confederate • capital
CONFEDERACY (SOUTH) CIVIL WARSTRATEGIES GOAL: RECOGNITION AS AN INDEPENDENT NATION • Get Britain to pressure • North to end blockade and • restore supplies • Defend homeland until North tired of fighting • Capture Washington, D.C.
1st BATTLE OF MANASSAS/BULL RUN (Virginia) July 21, 1861 CIVIL WARBATTLES, 1861 • - Northerners expected a quick • victory and an early end to • the war. • Residents of Washington, • D.C. came out to watch • Confederates won the battle • General Thomas Jackson • earned the title “Stonewall • Jackson at this battle
BATTLE OF THE MONITOR AND MERRIMAC March 9, 1862 (Virginia) CIVIL WARBATTLES , 1862 New naval warships called ironclads (covered in metal rather than just wood) battled head to head near the Chesapeake Bay. This battle ended in a draw (tie).
CIVIL WARBATTLES, 1862 PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: MARCH 1862 (VIRGINIA) McClellan lost command of Union army. Lincoln gives him command of smaller unit to go after Richmond. This was a lost cause by August.
Shiloh: April 6, 1862 (Tennessee) CIVIL WARBATTLES , 1862 The Union found hope in the work of a little known general named Ulysses Grant, who took control of Tennessee. This was the bloodiest US battle up to that day: -- 1,735 Union dead -- 7,882 Union wounded -- 1,728 Confederate dead -- 8,012 Confederate wounded
CIVIL WARBATTLES , 1862 New Orleans: April 25, 1862 (Louisiana) • Union forces captured New Orleans, an important port at the mouth of the Mississippi River. • Benjamin Butler began taking slaves as refugees and called them “Contraband”.
CIVIL WARBATTLES , 1862 2nd Battle of Bull Run (Virginia) August 29-30, 1862 Stonewall Jackson and Robert E Lee are making things embarrassing for President Lincoln. After the failure of the Peninsula Campaign, the Rebels force the Union boys to retreat once again at Bull Run.
ANTIETAM (Maryland) September 17, 1862 CIVIL WARBATTLES , 1862 • Bloodiest single day of battle • in America’s history • -- 2,010 Union dead • -- 9,416 Union wounded • -- 1,512 Confederate dead • -- 7,816 Confederate wounded • Confederate defeat which prevented • Gen. Lee from convincing Britain • to support the South
January 1, 1863 CIVIL WAREMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION • - Freed only the slaves in the • “rebellious” states BUT any places that Union troops took over gave protection to slave refugees. • Political move on the part of • Abraham Lincoln when he • was concerned the North was • tiring of war. • - Gave the North a new purpose to continue the war • Britain decided to withhold • recognition of the • Confederacy
NORTH • “Peace Democrats” (also called “Copperheads”) favored a truce with the Confederacy • Enlistments declined • Bounties offered – failed • Draft law drew names of men 20-45 • Could buy out of it for $300 • Draft riots took place in New York City in July, 1863 • SOUTH • Enlistments declined • Draft law drew names of men • 18-35 to serve for 3 years • could hire a substitute • Bombing raids caused people to have to leave their homes • Blockade caused imported goods to disappear • Crops were destroyed, railroads were torn apart • Clothing wore out and could not be replaced CIVIL WAR PROBLEMS BY 1863