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The Civil War, 1861-1865

The Civil War, 1861-1865

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The Civil War, 1861-1865

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  1. The Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15

  2. North • Advantages: • Population (immigrants; slaves) • Large industry; financial sectors • Controlled: banks, RR, factories • Block S. from the trading w/the world • Greenbacks—currency

  3. North (cont’d) 7. Disadvantages • Offensive war • Occupy the S. • Landlocked

  4. II. South • Not landlocked • Defensive war • High troop morale • Highly trained generals

  5. South (cont’d) • Disadvantages • Lack of resources • Limited transportation • Cotton demand dropped • Inflation

  6. III. Finding Soldiers to Fight • Unionvolunteers at first • 1863—Conscription (draft) • New York Draft Riots • Confederacy • Volunteers at first • Draftedwealthy also paid for others to serve

  7. IV. Border States & Congress • Lincolnneeded the border states • DE, MD, MO, KYUnion slave states • Some opposed the war • Copperheads (aka Peace Democrats) • Immediate peace w/Conf.

  8. V. 1st Large Military Engagement • July 1861, 1st Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) • 1st major land battle • Union defeated • “Stonewall” Jackson • N. misjudged S. • N.Long War!! • S.became complacent

  9. VI. Union Plan • Gen. Winfield Scott—4 Phase Plan • 1st Phase—Anaconda Plan • Union Navy blockade ALL Southern Ports • Block trade & supplies • 2nd Phase—Control the Mississippi River • Cut S. in half

  10. Union Plan (cont’d) • 3rd Phase—March through GA; up to Carolinas • 4th Phase—Capture capital at Richmond, VA

  11. Second Battle of Bull Runand Antietam • March 1862—Gen. Robert E. Lee • Forced Union Gen. John Pope to retreat • Lee now had 2 major victories • Hoped another would get foreign aid

  12. Antietam • Antietam—Bloodiest day • 22,000 dead • McClellan forced a Lee retreat • McClellan didn’t pursue!! Relieved of duty • Sept. 1862—TURNING POINT—Kept Confederates from getting foreign aid! • Lincoln now had a victory.

  13. VIII. Emancipation Proclamation • Jan. 1, 1863. • Gave N. moral justification • England agreed; won’t help the S. • Ex-slaves/free blacks joined Union • 54th Mass. Infantry

  14. IX. Ironclads • Ironclad ships • S. CSS Merimac • N. USS Monitor • No more wooden ships in U.S. navy

  15. X. 1863: War Tips to the North • 1862-1863 Union loses at Battle of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville • June 1863—Gettysburg, PA • Bloodiest overall battle of the war • Lee; never again try to attack the N. • Confederate fate sealed at Gettysburg • Won’t get European support; never win again

  16. 1863: War Tips to the North (cont’d) • July 4, 1863—Vicksburg, MS • Union (Grant) got control of Miss. River • Gettysburg Address • Jan. 1864—Grant Commander of the Union Army

  17. XII. Gen. Sherman • Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman • Scorched Earth—Burn & destroy fields, homes, everything • Force Southerners to surrender

  18. XII. Surrender & Assassination • Pres. Lincolnno peacesurrender!!! • April 9, 1965 Confederate Army surrendered Appomattox Court House • April 14, 1865—Lincoln assassinated by Booth

  19. XIII. End of Slavery & Free Blacks • Confiscation Acts • Property used for war seized • Slaves; confiscated • Freed slaves in any rebellious territory • Border states? • 13th Amendment—Abolished slavery in the U.S. • Freedmen; 1,000s flocked to the N. • 180,000 blacks fought for the Union

  20. XIV. Consequences of the War • Generation lost; 620,000 • Women: nurses, vet. hospitals, at home, etc. • 1865: 4 million new Americans (13th Amend.) • Politics: preserving the Union; federal gov. supreme • American democracy survived

  21. Consequences of the War (cont’d) • Economic: Southruined; industrializaiton • N. would try Reconstruction of S. gov. • North: Industrial boom! Many got rich off highly priced necessities • Homestead Act of 1862 • 160 acres to any family; farm for at least 5 years

  22. Homesteaders

  23. Consequences of the War (cont’d) • Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 • Federal land for schools • Teach ag. & tech. trades • Pacific Railway Act of 1862 • Trans. Railroad • Atlantic-Pacific Ocean